Te Jul c cll Pte autum 2011
Tepe, ‘m’ tute t ‘etuge eet’ c-e mee
Project CBD Update—
starts on page 7
• CBD-Rich Strains Abound
Some 35 strains containing more than 4% Cannabidiol
have been identied by labs serving the medical cannabisindustry in the U.S.
• SCC Launches Survey
The Society of Cannabis Clinicians has begun collect-ing patients’ responses to CBD-rich products.
• How CBD Works
Martin A. Lee lays out what scientists have learnedabout the mechanism of action by which CBD exerts itseffects.
• “Sour Tsunami” Stabilized
Lawrence Ringo (below) has bred plants that produceseeds with a one-in-four chance of containing 10-11%CBD (and 6-7% THC)!
t te “c blg Mee” wkpel t heew Uvet Jeulem lt nveme.Te evet e Meulm 80t t. hm mplmet lue elpg t ve tetutue cbd (wt sv 1963), Thc (wt G 1964), me, te eutmtte tt Thcmm (wt deve 1992). a 1998 ppe smbe-stt, -ute Meulm, ppe tte (me te ) t et wtte mpu t exet “etuge eet.” ru, e mel v wt GW Pmeutl, pplete etuge ept t pt (me teplt).
“Is this the best way we can grow our big orchards?”—Woody Guthrie
b fe Ge
The chemical structure of tetrahyrdocannabinol (THC)was determined in 1964 by Raphael Mechoulam andYechiel Gaoni. For more than three decades thereafter, theblatant psychoactivity of THC induced scientists to deneit as the active ingredient in the plant.Experienced marijuana smokers who tried the drug Ma-rinol (pure, synthetic THC) when it became prescribablein the mid-1980s reported that the effects were dissimilar.But it wasn’t until the late 1990s that the research estab-lishment acknowledged that another compound, cannabi-diol (CBD), also exerted effects when present in signi-cant amounts.In 1999 a British start-up, GW Pharmaceuticals, beganclinical trials of a whole-plant extract containing rough-ly equal amounts of THC and CBD. Multiple Sclerosispatients found the combination extract —dubbed “Sa-tivex”— more effective in reducing pain and spasticitythan a high-THC extract devoid of CBD, and less psycho-active.Sativex has now been approved for use by MS patientsin England, Canada, New Zealand, and a growing list of European countries. CBD is no longer referred to as a“minor cannabinoid” at scientic conferences and in theliterature.Several cannabinoids still considered “minor” —tet-rahydrocannabavarin (THCV), cannabigerol (CBG) andcannabichromene (CBC)— also show therapeutic prom-ise, according to recent studies. Plants with high levels of each have been grown out in GW Pharmaceuticals’ glass-houses for research purposes.
Wke up mell te tepee!
Scientists are now formally acknowledging somethingelse that Cannabis consumers have long taken for granted:aroma is associated with effect.
The aroma of a given plant depends onwhich terpenoids predominate.
Plant cannabinoids —21-carbon molecules found onlyin Cannabis— are odorless. It’s the terpenoids —compo-nents of the plant’s “essential oils”— that create the fra-grance. Terpenoids contain repeating units of a 5-carbonmolecule called isoprene and are prevalent in smelly herbssuch as mints and sage, citrus peel, some owers, aromaticbarks and woods.The aroma of a given plant depends on which terpenoidspredominate. They tend to be volatile molecules that read-ily evaporate, and they’re very potent —all it takes is a fewreaching the nose to announce their presence.Evidence that “phytocannabinoid-terpenoid interac-tions” enhance the therapeutic effects of cannabis was pre-sented by Ethan Russo, MD, at a conference in Israel lastfall and published in the August 2011
British Journal of Pharmacology.
Russo, a neurologist and ethnobotanist, issenior medical adviser at GW Pharmaceuticals.
Hergenrather expects Russo’s talk to “gener-ate great interest in terpenes among medical cannabis users as well as physicians.”
Both terpenoids and cannabinoids are secreted inside the
Cannabis plant’s glandular trichomes, and they have a par-ent compound in common (geranyl pyrophosphate). Morethan 200 terpenoids have been identied in Cannabis. Themost common and most studied include limonene, myr-cene, alpha-pinene, linalool, beta-caryophyllene, caryo-phyllene oxide, nerolidol and phytol. Anecdotal evidencesuggests that pinene is alerting, limonene “sunshine-y,”and myrcene sedating.The fact that most terpenoid compounds are commoncomponents of the human diet and “generally recognizedas safe” by the Food and Drug Administration has maderesearch possible, and scientists employed by avor andfragrances manufacturers have investigated their proper-ties over the years. But the terpenoids “remain understud-ied” in terms of therapeutic potential, according to Russo.His paper mustered all the evidence —proof in somecases, hints in others— that cannabinoids and terpenoids
ee “Mem te t-e eet l te -ptp um ptte -m.” he tem tue 12 pue m “eltve ee extt” ( e w eet w pemt). Te -eve, “Geell, mg ll pue mpu tete,
CBD was the most efcacious at reducing cell viability...
m e te [extt] wee me ptet tpue mpu.” cbc cbG wee l u t eeetve, ut “t lee extet.” Ptte e elle klle, Lget epte, “tug evel u-g mleul mem.” a etuge eet!
Ethan Russo reviews the evidence
can work in concert to abate symptoms of pain, inamma-tion, depression, anxiety, addiction, epilepsy, cancer, fun-gal and bacterial infections, including methicillin-resistantStaphylococcus aureus (MRSA, which kills more Ameri-cans nowadays than AIDS) and other illnesses.Jeffrey Hergenrather, MD, president of the Society of Cannabis Clinicians, who heard Russo’s presentation inIsrael, expects its publication to “generate great inter-est in terpenes among medical cannabis users as well asphysicians.” The SCC recently began collecting data onpatients’ responses to CBD-rich Cannabis. Future sur-veys will seek to document which other cannabinoids andwhich terpenoids are associated with which effects.
(glule tp tlk)t pelze ell tt eete t - tepe.
• Harlequin, Omrita Rx3 Clones Released
To expedite patient access to CBD-rich medicine, thedevelopers of two remarkable strains have chosen tomake clones available (rather than provide only owers)to dispensaries participating in Project CBD.
• ICRS 2011: CBD Research Accelerates
“CBD was the star of the show on opening day here atICRS, demonstrating potent anti-cancer effects in a vari-ety of cancer types.”
—Jahan Marcu, on the Internation-al Cannabinoid Research Society meeting in early July.
continued on page 19
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