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Algal concentrates in hatchery culture

Algal concentrates in hatchery culture

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Culture of uni-cellular algae is a pre-requisite for successful operations in hatchery practices for shrimp, crab and most fish.
Culture of uni-cellular algae is a pre-requisite for successful operations in hatchery practices for shrimp, crab and most fish.

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Published by: International Aquafeed magazine on Nov 18, 2011
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International Aquafeed is published five times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.©Copyright 2009 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
November | December 2011Feature title: Algal concentrates in hatchery culture
 
C
ulture of uni-cellularalgae is a pre-requisitefor successful operationsin hatchery practices forshrimp, crab and most fish.
Problems with algal culture and inherentdisadvantages are described here, with theiradvantages in many cases being overcomeby these disadvantages. The current studydescribes a novel, industrialised approachto negate these disadvantages and to placehatchery culture methods on a more con-sistent and stable platform.This strategy was designed and imple-mented by Meriden Animal Health of theUK and is presented in the form of thePhyconmmix range of products.
The important factors
It is estimated that over 40 species of uni-cellular algae are in use in the aquacul-ture sector. They are generally recognised asdifficult to grow in mass culture, particularlyin low light (cloudy) or rainy conditions.The most important factors to consider inalgal culture are temperature, salinity, pH,light intensity, photoperiod and nutrientcomposition; the major expense in algalculture comes in the nutrient component.Algae can require up to 17 differenttrace components in their culture medium.The cost of production is furtherincreased due to the requirement forspecialist technicians. Large-scale cultureincreases the likelihood of breaches in bio-security, aspathogens can easily be trans-mitted from nearby culturetanks or via inadvertent intro-duction of insects etc.Generally speaking, only onealgal species tends to be cul-tured per single farmed species,therefore nutrient compositionbecomes a critical factor espe-cially when algae is entering itsdecline and death phases, andcomposition can therefore varywidely.Since single species algaecannot provide all of the nutri-ents required by larval shrimpand fish, careful selection of arange of algal species whichcover the spectrum of larvalnutrient requirements would seem a logicalprogression. Said species of algae can begrown in a sterile, hermetically sealed,bio-secure environment, then harvested atpre-determined times during the log phaseof growth to optimize nutrient quality andconsistency.
Algal concentrates
in hatchery culture
by John S Clark PhD, Aquatic Animal Health and Nutrition Technical Consultant, Bangkok, Thailand
30 | IntnatInal
AquAFeed
| november-December 2011-
F: Algal concentrates
Such algae can then be concen-trated via centrifuge then packagedand stored prior to use.Such a system is flexible in termsof algal composition in that formula-tions for fish and shrimp larvae canbe tailored to meet the require-ments of the larvae.These concentrates are easilystored and applied to tanks and canalso be used to enhance and enrichliving feeds such as rotifers andArtemia nauplii. Its use reducesthe need for mass culture tankswhich can then be turned over tolarval and nursery rearing and alsoreduces demand on labour time andequipment.Larval quality is improved anddevelopment is accelerated, result-ing in healthier, stronger larvaewhich can be sold at a premium,thereby improving returns oninvestment.
Materials and methods
A trial was run comparing liveChaetoceros with a commercially availablealgal concentrate (Meridens PhyconmmixShrimp ZM) as food sources for larvae of the white shrimp (
Litopenaeus vannamei
) inThailand.There were three control treatmentsand three test treatments in each studygroup, tank size was five tonne and stockingdensity at nauplius was 200/litre. As wellas their conventional feeds the test groupswere fed on Shrimp ZM two times/dayto Mysis 3 and then three times/day to
"Anectodal evidence suggests that Zoea 2Syndrome commonly experienced inmany hatcheries isnutritional in originbut complicated by  secondary invasionby bacteria or viruses(Li. Pers. Comm.)"
-november-December 2011 | IntnatInal
AquAFeed
| 31
F: Algal concentrates
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than a single species diet and this will aid inthe protection of target animals.The improved water quality usingconcentrates may simply be a functionof improved shrimp larval health lead-ing to improved vigour and appetite; itwas noted feed consumption rates werehigher but were non-detrimental to thelarval environment. In such an environ-ment and with a much more complete,nutritionally balanced dietary regimen,it is not surprising that survival, growth,feed intake and resistance to stress are allsignificantly improved.The developmental and structuraladvantages seen in the harvested post-larvae are of considerable interest to growout farmers. In Plate 1 an examination of the carapace by SEM reveals the carapaceto be thin and pliable, and therefore moreprone to damage. By contrast, the carapaceof animals fed on concentrate appears muchdenser and stronger, and would thereforebe capable of resisting much more handlingstress. Such considerations are of vitalimportance to farmers.Even in the case of the compound eye,the eye seems incomplete in the controls(Plate 3) and this will of course impact onfeeding behavior. It seems in general theconcentrate fed animals are more devel-oped than controls (Plate 4) and thereforemore suited to the rigours of pond life.Advantages are therefore not restrictedto simple survival and growth; there aremany subtle advantages that may escapedirect attention but become evident ondeeper study.This developmental advantage is alsoobserved in trials with concentrates in thenutrition of larval fish. In a recent studyon larval sea bass (Lates calcarifer) apartfrom the advantages in terms of survivaland growth, significant developmental accel-eration was observed in development of dentition (Plate 5), taste bud (Plate 6) andbuccal microbial flora (Plate 7).When factors such as ease of storage,ease of use, nutritional consistency, absenceof potential pathogens, reduced labour costand freeing of tank space are consideredalongside the aforementioned performancesuperiority, the future of algal concentratesas a significant tool in hatchery cultureseems secure.
Acknowledgements
The author would like to thank allconcerned for their support during thedevelopment of the products and thoseinvolved in the demonstration of the prod-uct performance.(see Figure 2) and significantly heavier (seeFigure 3) than controls, which results in asignificantly more favourable length/weightratio (see Figure 4).Similarly, feed utilisation seems superiorin that the gut/muscle ratio favours musclein the test groups (see Figure 5) and this ismanifested as an increased Artemia naupliusand flake feed consumption (see Figures 6and 7).The final post-larvae are significantlystronger and more resistant to for-malin stress as evinced by survivalrates displayed in Figure 8. ScanningElectron Microscope studies showsignificant differences in exo-skeletalstructure and strength (Plates 1 and2) as well as in development rate of the compound eye (Plates 3 and 4).Such differences in stress survivaland the structural improvement inthe animals fed concentrates hassignificance to the grow-out phase of farming operations.Finally, cost and return on invest-ment figure prominently in thevocabulary of any hatchery operator. It canbe seen from Table 1 that use of concen-trates does in fact lead to more profitableproduction of post-larvae and that this,coupled with the many advantages relatingto ease of use make algal concentrates veryattractive to hatchery operators.
Discussion
Anectodal evidence suggests that Zoea 2Syndrome commonly experienced in manyhatcheries is nutritional in origin but com-plicated by secondary invasion by bacteriaor viruses (Li. Pers. Comm.). This study, inwhich no outbreak was experienced in thetest groups, would tend to support thatpremise. The nutritional profile of a multi-algal species diet will be more completePL15 following the manufacturers feedinginstructions.Survival, length, weight, length/weightratio, gut/muscle ratio, feed consumption,hepatopancreatic Vibrio count, formalinstress test were all recorded during thistrial. Scanning Electron Microscope studiesof the harvested post-larvae were alsoconducted.The accumulated data allowed for areturn on investment calculation to bemade between the use of live and concen-trated algae during larval shrimp culture.
Results
By Zoea 2 an obvious size difference wasnoted (Li, pers. Comm.).At the same time, controls experiencedan outbreak of Zoea 2 Syndrome and asignificant mortality occurred. It was note-worthy that water quality in the test tankswas viewed as superior to that observedin live controls. This has been mirrored inother trials (Pota, pers comm.; Somhathai,pers.comm).Figure 1 shows mean survival in thethree concentrate treatments to be sig-nificantly higher than in the live controls.Animals are significantly greater in length
32 | IntnatInal
AquAFeed
| november-December 2011
F: Feature
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