ulture of uni-cellularalgae is a pre-requisitefor successful operationsin hatchery practices forshrimp, crab and most fish.
Problems with algal culture and inherentdisadvantages are described here, with theiradvantages in many cases being overcomeby these disadvantages. The current studydescribes a novel, industrialised approachto negate these disadvantages and to placehatchery culture methods on a more con-sistent and stable platform.This strategy was designed and imple-mented by Meriden Animal Health of theUK and is presented in the form of thePhyconmmix range of products.
The important factors
It is estimated that over 40 species of uni-cellular algae are in use in the aquacul-ture sector. They are generally recognised asdifficult to grow in mass culture, particularlyin low light (cloudy) or rainy conditions.The most important factors to consider inalgal culture are temperature, salinity, pH,light intensity, photoperiod and nutrientcomposition; the major expense in algalculture comes in the nutrient component.Algae can require up to 17 differenttrace components in their culture medium.The cost of production is furtherincreased due to the requirement forspecialist technicians. Large-scale cultureincreases the likelihood of breaches in bio-security, aspathogens can easily be trans-mitted from nearby culturetanks or via inadvertent intro-duction of insects etc.Generally speaking, only onealgal species tends to be cul-tured per single farmed species,therefore nutrient compositionbecomes a critical factor espe-cially when algae is entering itsdecline and death phases, andcomposition can therefore varywidely.Since single species algaecannot provide all of the nutri-ents required by larval shrimpand fish, careful selection of arange of algal species whichcover the spectrum of larvalnutrient requirements would seem a logicalprogression. Said species of algae can begrown in a sterile, hermetically sealed,bio-secure environment, then harvested atpre-determined times during the log phaseof growth to optimize nutrient quality andconsistency.
in hatchery culture
by John S Clark PhD, Aquatic Animal Health and Nutrition Technical Consultant, Bangkok, Thailand
30 | IntnatInal
| november-December 2011-
F: Algal concentrates
Such algae can then be concen-trated via centrifuge then packagedand stored prior to use.Such a system is flexible in termsof algal composition in that formula-tions for fish and shrimp larvae canbe tailored to meet the require-ments of the larvae.These concentrates are easilystored and applied to tanks and canalso be used to enhance and enrichliving feeds such as rotifers andArtemia nauplii. Its use reducesthe need for mass culture tankswhich can then be turned over tolarval and nursery rearing and alsoreduces demand on labour time andequipment.Larval quality is improved anddevelopment is accelerated, result-ing in healthier, stronger larvaewhich can be sold at a premium,thereby improving returns oninvestment.
Materials and methods
A trial was run comparing liveChaetoceros with a commercially availablealgal concentrate (Meridens PhyconmmixShrimp ZM) as food sources for larvae of the white shrimp (
) inThailand.There were three control treatmentsand three test treatments in each studygroup, tank size was five tonne and stockingdensity at nauplius was 200/litre. As wellas their conventional feeds the test groupswere fed on Shrimp ZM two times/dayto Mysis 3 and then three times/day to
"Anectodal evidence suggests that Zoea 2Syndrome commonly experienced inmany hatcheries isnutritional in originbut complicated by secondary invasionby bacteria or viruses(Li. Pers. Comm.)"
-november-December 2011 | IntnatInal
F: Algal concentrates