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Table Of Contents

INTRODUCTION
1.0 Introduction
1.1 Definite and Indefnite Markers
1.2 Definiteness, Indefniteness, and Specifcation
Table 1-1: Khan's Hierarchies of Individuation
Table 1-2: Features Afecting Individuation
1.3 Defniteness and Individuation
1.3 Defnitenes and Individuation
1.4 Indefinite-Specific Marking
1.4.1 Indefinite-Specifc Article i§ii
1.4.2 Nunation as Indefnite-Specifc Marking
1.5 Defniteness and First Mention: New Topic
2.1.3 Periphrastic Duals
2.1.4 Dual as New-Topic Marker
2.1.5 Pseudo-duals
2.1.6 Adverbial Dual
2.2 Agreement Patterns of Plural Nouns
2.3 Agreement Neutralizationto
2.3.1 Neutralized Adjectival Agreement
2.3.2 Verb-Subject Number Agreement
2.4 Genitive and Possessive Constructions
Table 2-1: Genitive Exponents
2.4.3 Pragmatic Functions
2.4.4 Exponents and Individuation
2.4.5 Sociolinguistic Motivations
2.5 Summary 87
2.5 Summary
3 RELATIVE CLAUSES
3.0 Introduction
3.1 Relativization of Indefnite-Specic Nouns with /illi/ 91
3.1 Relativization of Indefnite-Specifc Nouns with filIiI
3.2 Non-attributive Relative Clauses 9
3.2 Non-attributive Relative Clauses
3.3 Aleppan Relative Pronoun /iI/ 101
3.3 Aleppan Relative Pronoun Iill
3.4 Relativizing Non-specifc Temporal Nouns
3.7 Moroccan Relative Pronoun Id 10
3.7 Moroccan Relative Pronoun /d/
3.8 Summary
4 DEMONSTRATIVE ARTICLES AND PRONOUNS
4.0 Introduction
4.1 Proximal and Distal Demonstrative Forms 113
4.1 Proximal and Distal Demonstrative Forms
Table 4-1: Proximal Demonstrative Pronouns
Table 4-2: Distal Demonstrative Pronouns
4.2 Unstressed Anaphoric Demonstrative Articles Ihal and Ihadl
Table 4-3: Unstresed Demonstrative Articles
4.2.1 Syntactic Functions of Demonstrative Articles
4.2.2 Discourse Functions of the Demonstrative Article
4.3 Unstressed Distal Demonstratives
4.3.1 Ungendered Moroccan /dikl and /dakl
4.3.2 Non-specific Temporal Demonstrative Idik
4.4 Demonstrative Pronouns in Post-Nominal Position
4.4 Post-Nominal Demonstratives 129
4.4.1 Post-Nominal Demonstratives
4.4.2 "Double" Demonstrative Constructions
4.5 Discourse Functions of Distal Demonstratives
4.6 Summary
5 CATEGORIZING VERBS
5.0 Introduction
5.1 Overview of Verb Forms
5.2 Auiliaries and Other Categories 143
5.2 Auxiliaries and Other Categories
5.2.1 Verbs or Motion
5.2.2 Temporal Verbs
5.3 Pseudo-Verbs
5.3.1 Characteristics of Pseudo-Verbs
5.3.2 Pronouns as Copulas
5.3.3 Pseudo-Verbs in Rural Northwestern Syria
5.3.4 Loss of Verbal Status
5.4 The Participle
5.5 Summary
6 ASPEC
6.0 Introduction
6.1 Lexical Aspect
Table 6-1: Classification of Lexical Aspect
Table 6-2: Lexical Aspect and the Participle
6.2 Formal Aspect
6.3 Translation and Speaker Point of View
6.4 Perfect Aspect 179
6.4 Perfect Aspect
6.4.1 Perfect Aspect and the Participle
6.5.1 Foregrounding and Backgrounding
6.5.2 Aspect and Narrative Contour
Table 6-3: Narrative Contour Verbs
6.5.3 Suddenly, all of a suden with Participle
6.6 Summary
7 TENSE AND TIME REFERENCE
7.0 Introduction
7.1 Relative Time Reference in Arabic
7.1.1 Adverbs and Relative Time Reference
7.1.2 Relative Time Reference in Complement Clauses
7.1.4 Kuwaiti lean/: Historical Present
7.2 Temporal Verbs
Table 7-1: Temporal Verbs
7.2.1 Temporal Verbs in Compound Verb Phrases
7.2.2 Topicalization of Temporal Verb�
7.2.3 To start, begin: Stative and Non-stative
7.3 The Participle and Time Reference 225
7.3 The Participle and Time Reference
7.4 Summary
8 MOOD
8.0 Introduction
Table 8-1: Moods in the Dialects
8.1 Marked and Unmarked Imperfectives
Table 8-2: Imperfective Markers
8.2 Unmarked Imperfective: Subjunctive
8.3 Marked Forms of the Imperfective 241
8.3 Marked Forms of the Imperfective
8.3.1 Future and Intentive Moos
8.3.2 Indicative Mood
Table 8·3: Indicative Markers
8.4 The Multiple Meanings of Syrian /b-/
Table 8-4: Meanings of Syrian Ib-I
8.5 Kuwaiti Iclnl: Modal Auxiliary?
8.6 Commissive Mood: Marked Use of Perfective 255
8.6 Commisive Mood: Marked Use of the Perfective
8.7 Conditional and Hypothetical Moods
8.7.1 Conditional Particles in the Dialects
Table 8-5: Conditional Particles
8.7.2 Hypothetical and Counterfactual /kan/
8.7.2.1 /kan/ as Frozen Hypothetical Marker
8.7.3 Habitual and Non-hypothetical Conditionals: Perfective
8.7.3.2 I-mal-ever
8.7.4 Aspect and Mood in Conditional Sentences
Figure 3 Continuum of Hypotheticality
8.8 Summary
9.0 Introduction
9.1 Overview of Negation in the Dialects
9.2 Three Strategies of Negation
9.3.2 Negation of Participles
9.3.3 Verbal Negation of Predicates in Morocan
9.3.4 Negation of the Imperative: The Prohibitive
9.3.5 The Negative Copula
Table 9-2: The Negative Copula
9.4 Predicate Negation 301
9.4 Predicate Negation
9.5 Categorical Negation
9.5.1 Categorical Negation of the Verb Phrase
9.5.2 Categorical Negation of Single Sentence Elements
9.5.3 Categorical Negation of Coordinated Structures
9.6 Summary
10 SENTENCE TYPOLOGY
10.0 Introduction
10.1 Sentence Typology
10.1.1 Structural Evidence for the Primacy ofVSO
10.1.2 Typological Frequency and Discourse Type
10.2 Topic-and Subject-Prominent Sentence Structures 329
10.2 Topic-Prominent and Subject-Prominent Sentence Structures
10.2.1 Spoken Arabic as a Topic-Prominent Language
10.2.2 Temporal Frame as Topic
10.2.3 Topical Circumstantial Clauses (/.311)
10.3 Variation in Word Order: Information Packaging
10.3.1 Right-Dislocated Subjects: New Information
10.3.2 Pronoun Subject Position
10.4 Syrian Object-Marker /Ia-/: Resumptive Topi24
10.5 The Ethical Dative: Point of View and Empathy
10.6 Summary
CONCLUSIONS
Figure 4: Individuation and the Syntax of Spoken Arabic
ApPENDIX 1: INFORMANTS
MOROCCO
EGYP
REFERENCES
SUBJEC INDEX
AUHOR INDEX
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the Syntax Arabic

the Syntax Arabic

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Published by Fathiya Saleh

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Published by: Fathiya Saleh on Nov 18, 2011
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