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Motion in Two Dimensions

c h a p t e r

4.1The Displacement, Velocity, and

Acceleration Vectors

4.2Two-Dimensional Motion with

Constant Acceleration

4.3Projectile Motion

4.4Uniform Circular Motion

4.5Tangential and Radial Acceleration

4.6Relative Velocity and Relative

Acceleration

Chapter Outline

This airplane is used by NASA for astro-

naut training. When it \ufb02ies along a cer-

tain curved path, anything inside the

plane that is not strapped down begins to

\ufb02oat. What causes this strange effect?

(NASA)

web

For more information on microgravity in

general and on this airplane, visit

http://microgravity.msfc.nasa.gov/

andhttp://www.jsc.nasa.gov/coop/

kc135/kc135.html

76

PU Z Z L E R

PU Z Z L E R

I

4.1The Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors

77

n this chapter we deal with the kinematics of a particle moving in two dimen-

sions. Knowing the basics of two-dimensional motion will allow us to examine \u2014

in future chapters \u2014 a wide variety of motions, ranging from the motion of satel- lites in orbit to the motion of electrons in a uniform electric \ufb01eld. We begin by studying in greater detail the vector nature of displacement, velocity, and accelera- tion. As in the case of one-dimensional motion, we derive the kinematic equations for two-dimensional motion from the fundamental de\ufb01nitions of these three quan- tities. We then treat projectile motion and uniform circular motion as special cases of motion in two dimensions. We also discuss the concept of relative motion, which shows why observers in different frames of reference may measure different displacements, velocities, and accelerations for a given particle.

THE DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY, AND

ACCELERATION VECTORS

In Chapter 2 we found that the motion of a particle moving along a straight line is completely known if its position is known as a function of time. Now let us extend this idea to motion in thexy plane. We begin by describing the position of a parti- cle by its position vectorr, drawn from the origin of some coordinate system to the particle located in thexy plane, as in Figure 4.1. At timeti the particle is at point

\ue000, and at some later timetfit is at point\ue001. The path from\ue000 to\ue001 is not neces-

sarily a straight line. As the particle moves from\ue000 to\ue001 in the time interval

its position vector changes fromri torf . As we learned in Chapter 2, displacement is a vector, and the displacement of the particle is the difference be- tween its \ufb01nal position and its initial position. We now formally de\ufb01ne thedis-

placement vector\ue000rfor the particle of Figure 4.1 as being the difference be-

tween its \ufb01nal position vector and its initial position vector:

(4.1)

The direction of\ue000r is indicated in Figure 4.1. As we see from the \ufb01gure, the mag- nitude of\ue000r isless than the distance traveled along the curved path followed by the particle.

As we saw in Chapter 2, it is often useful to quantify motion by looking at the ratio of a displacement divided by the time interval during which that displace- ment occurred. In two-dimensional (or three-dimensional) kinematics, everything is the same as in one-dimensional kinematics except that we must now use vectors rather than plus and minus signs to indicate the direction of motion.

\ue000r\ue000 rf\ue001ri

\ue000t \ue002tf \ue001ti,

4.1

We de\ufb01ne the average velocity of a particle during the time interval\ue000t as the

displacement of the particle divided by that time interval:

(4.2)

v\ue000\ue000r

\ue000t

Multiplying or dividing a vector quantity by a scalar quantity changes only the mag- nitude of the vector, not its direction. Because displacement is a vector quantity and the time interval is a scalar quantity, we conclude that the average velocity is a vector quantity directed along\ue000r.

Note that the average velocity between points is independent of the path taken.

This is because average velocity is proportional to displacement, which depends

Path of

particle

x

y

\ue000ti

ri

\u2206r

\ue001tf

rf

O

Displacement vector

Average velocity

Figure 4.1A particle moving in

thexy plane is located with the po-

sition vectorr drawn from the ori-

gin to the particle. The displace-

ment of the particle as it moves

from\ue000 to\ue001 in the time interval

\ue000t \ue002tf\ue001tiis equal to the vector

\ue000r \ue002rf\ue001ri.

only on the initial and \ufb01nal position vectors and not on the path taken. As we did with one-dimensional motion, we conclude that if a particle starts its motion at some point and returns to this point via any path, its average velocity is zero for this trip because its displacement is zero.

Consider again the motion of a particle between two points in thexy plane, as shown in Figure 4.2. As the time interval over which we observe the motion be- comes smaller and smaller, the direction of the displacement approaches that of the line tangent to the path at\ue000.

78

CHAPTER 4Motion in Two Dimensions

The instantaneous velocity v is de\ufb01ned as the limit of the average velocity

\ue000r/\ue000tas \ue000tapproaches zero:

(4.3)

v\ue000lim

\ue000t:0

\ue000r

\ue000t\ue002dr

dt

That is, the instantaneous velocity equals the derivative of the position vector with respect to time. The direction of the instantaneous velocity vector at any point in a particle\u2019s path is along a line tangent to the path at that point and in the direction of motion (Fig. 4.3).

The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity vector

is called thespeed,

which, as you should remember, is a scalar quantity.

v\ue002\ue001v \ue001

Instantaneous velocity

Figure 4.2As a particle moves be-

tween two points, its average velocity is

in the direction of the displacement vec-

tor\ue000r. As the end point of the path is

moved from\ue001 to\ue001\ue003 to\ue001\ue004, the respec-

tive displacements and corresponding

time intervals become smaller and

smaller. In the limit that the end point

approaches\ue000,\ue000t approaches zero, and

the direction of\ue000r approaches that of

the line tangent to the curve at\ue000. By

de\ufb01nition, the instantaneous velocity at

\ue000is in the direction of this tangent

line.

Figure 4.3A particle moves

from position\ue000 to position\ue001.

Its velocity vector changes from

vitovf. The vector diagrams at

the upper right show two ways

of determining the vector\ue000v

from the initial and \ufb01nal

velocities.

Direction ofv at\ue000

O

y

x

\ue000

\u2206r3 \u2206r2 \u2206r1

\ue001"

\ue001'

\ue001

x

y

O

\ue000

vi

ri

rf

vf

\ue001

\u2013vi

\u2206v

vf

or

vi

\u2206v

vf

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