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04 Movimiento Bi Dimensional

04 Movimiento Bi Dimensional

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Motion in Two Dimensions
c h a p t e r
4.1The Displacement, Velocity, and
Acceleration Vectors
4.2Two-Dimensional Motion with
Constant Acceleration
4.3Projectile Motion

4.4Uniform Circular Motion
4.5Tangential and Radial Acceleration
4.6Relative Velocity and Relative

Acceleration
Chapter Outline

This airplane is used by NASA for astro-
naut training. When it \ufb02ies along a cer-
tain curved path, anything inside the
plane that is not strapped down begins to
\ufb02oat. What causes this strange effect?

(NASA)
web
For more information on microgravity in
general and on this airplane, visit
http://microgravity.msfc.nasa.gov/
andhttp://www.jsc.nasa.gov/coop/
kc135/kc135.html
76
PU Z Z L E R
PU Z Z L E R
I
4.1The Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration Vectors
77
n this chapter we deal with the kinematics of a particle moving in two dimen-
sions. Knowing the basics of two-dimensional motion will allow us to examine \u2014

in future chapters \u2014 a wide variety of motions, ranging from the motion of satel- lites in orbit to the motion of electrons in a uniform electric \ufb01eld. We begin by studying in greater detail the vector nature of displacement, velocity, and accelera- tion. As in the case of one-dimensional motion, we derive the kinematic equations for two-dimensional motion from the fundamental de\ufb01nitions of these three quan- tities. We then treat projectile motion and uniform circular motion as special cases of motion in two dimensions. We also discuss the concept of relative motion, which shows why observers in different frames of reference may measure different displacements, velocities, and accelerations for a given particle.

THE DISPLACEMENT, VELOCITY, AND
ACCELERATION VECTORS

In Chapter 2 we found that the motion of a particle moving along a straight line is completely known if its position is known as a function of time. Now let us extend this idea to motion in thexy plane. We begin by describing the position of a parti- cle by its position vectorr, drawn from the origin of some coordinate system to the particle located in thexy plane, as in Figure 4.1. At timeti the particle is at point

\ue000, and at some later timetfit is at point\ue001. The path from\ue000 to\ue001 is not neces-
sarily a straight line. As the particle moves from\ue000 to\ue001 in the time interval

its position vector changes fromri torf . As we learned in Chapter 2, displacement is a vector, and the displacement of the particle is the difference be- tween its \ufb01nal position and its initial position. We now formally de\ufb01ne thedis-

placement vector\ue000rfor the particle of Figure 4.1 as being the difference be-
tween its \ufb01nal position vector and its initial position vector:
(4.1)

The direction of\ue000r is indicated in Figure 4.1. As we see from the \ufb01gure, the mag- nitude of\ue000r isless than the distance traveled along the curved path followed by the particle.

As we saw in Chapter 2, it is often useful to quantify motion by looking at the ratio of a displacement divided by the time interval during which that displace- ment occurred. In two-dimensional (or three-dimensional) kinematics, everything is the same as in one-dimensional kinematics except that we must now use vectors rather than plus and minus signs to indicate the direction of motion.

\ue000r\ue000 rf\ue001ri
\ue000t \ue002tf \ue001ti,
4.1
We de\ufb01ne the average velocity of a particle during the time interval\ue000t as the
displacement of the particle divided by that time interval:
(4.2)
v\ue000\ue000r
\ue000t

Multiplying or dividing a vector quantity by a scalar quantity changes only the mag- nitude of the vector, not its direction. Because displacement is a vector quantity and the time interval is a scalar quantity, we conclude that the average velocity is a vector quantity directed along\ue000r.

Note that the average velocity between points is independent of the path taken.
This is because average velocity is proportional to displacement, which depends
Path of
particle
x
y
\ue000ti
ri
\u2206r
\ue001tf
rf
O
Displacement vector
Average velocity
Figure 4.1A particle moving in

thexy plane is located with the po-
sition vectorr drawn from the ori-
gin to the particle. The displace-
ment of the particle as it moves
from\ue000 to\ue001 in the time interval

\ue000t \ue002tf\ue001tiis equal to the vector
\ue000r \ue002rf\ue001ri.

only on the initial and \ufb01nal position vectors and not on the path taken. As we did with one-dimensional motion, we conclude that if a particle starts its motion at some point and returns to this point via any path, its average velocity is zero for this trip because its displacement is zero.

Consider again the motion of a particle between two points in thexy plane, as shown in Figure 4.2. As the time interval over which we observe the motion be- comes smaller and smaller, the direction of the displacement approaches that of the line tangent to the path at\ue000.

78
CHAPTER 4Motion in Two Dimensions
The instantaneous velocity v is de\ufb01ned as the limit of the average velocity
\ue000r/\ue000tas \ue000tapproaches zero:
(4.3)
v\ue000lim
\ue000t:0
\ue000r
\ue000t\ue002dr
dt

That is, the instantaneous velocity equals the derivative of the position vector with respect to time. The direction of the instantaneous velocity vector at any point in a particle\u2019s path is along a line tangent to the path at that point and in the direction of motion (Fig. 4.3).

The magnitude of the instantaneous velocity vector
is called thespeed,
which, as you should remember, is a scalar quantity.
v\ue002\ue001v \ue001
Instantaneous velocity
Figure 4.2As a particle moves be-

tween two points, its average velocity is
in the direction of the displacement vec-
tor\ue000r. As the end point of the path is
moved from\ue001 to\ue001\ue003 to\ue001\ue004, the respec-
tive displacements and corresponding
time intervals become smaller and
smaller. In the limit that the end point
approaches\ue000,\ue000t approaches zero, and
the direction of\ue000r approaches that of
the line tangent to the curve at\ue000. By
de\ufb01nition, the instantaneous velocity at

\ue000is in the direction of this tangent
line.
Figure 4.3A particle moves
from position\ue000 to position\ue001.
Its velocity vector changes from
vitovf. The vector diagrams at

the upper right show two ways
of determining the vector\ue000v
from the initial and \ufb01nal
velocities.

Direction ofv at\ue000
O
y
x
\ue000

\u2206r3 \u2206r2 \u2206r1

\ue001"
\ue001'
\ue001
x
y
O
\ue000
vi
ri
rf
vf
\ue001
\u2013vi
\u2206v
vf
or
vi
\u2206v
vf

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