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GIS in Water Resources Engineering

GIS in Water Resources Engineering

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Published by: nour on Nov 18, 2011
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GIS in Water ResourcesEngineering
How Geographic Information Systems are used in aiding the construction of dams.
FRIDAY, MARCH 11, 2011 
 Altinakar, Mustafa S., Marcus Z. McGrath, Ewa K. Fijolek and Edie Miglio. 2008.Risk and vulnerability studies for water infrastructures using a GIS-baseddecision support system with 2D numerical flood modeling.
 Proceedings of the8th International Conference on Computer Hydroscience and Engineering, ICHE-09, Sept. 8-12, Nagoya, Japan.
 The article describes the development of a GIS-based decision support system forevaluating the impact of floods resulting from dam and levee break/breaching based on a two-dimensional shock capturing unsteady conservative finite-volumemodel that uses a Digital Elevation Model directly as a computational grid. ThisGIS-based decision support system directly reads simulation results and allowsthe user to interface these results with spatial socio-economic data to determinethe probability of loss-of-life and urban and agricultural flood damage.The paper states that there is an urgent need for the development of floodsimulation models that can be linked with GIS-based decision support tools forevaluating the impact of various failure scenarios and preparing the appropriateemergency management plans.Bastawesy, Mohamed A., Fikry I. Khalaf, and Sayed M. Arafat. 2008. The use of remote sensing and GIS for the estimation of water loss from Tushka lakes,southwestern desert, Egypt.
 Journal of African Earth Sciences
52, no. 3: 73-80.Tushka Lakes, Egypt. Source:http://www.vgt.vito.be/VEGETATION%20samples/album/other/index.html 
 
 In this article, the behavior of the hydrological regime of Tushka Lakes, whichcame into being by the construction of Lake Nasser (a reservoir formed by AswanHigh Dam) was assessed using an integration of Remote Sensing and GIStechnologies. A dual histogram threshold method was used to discriminate between the lakes and surroundings. Uncertainty was a concern as there weremixed and transitional zone pixels between land and water. Topographic maps were digitized and a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was generated to simulatelakes bottom topography and surroundings. The DEM was of a 20 m resolution
and was interpolated in ArcInfo’s Topograd’s module using digitized contours,
drainage networks and spot heights layers. The DEM-simulated lakes were thendirectly overlaid on their counterparts from the co-incident 2002 and 2006subimages. Finally, a GIS-based scenario was established to predict the futuresurface areas, configurations and storage of these lakes.The authors discussed that the use of satellite data and GIS techniques in theprediction of temporal changes in the quantity of these water masses is anefficient tool, especially when the remote location and the extensive area coverageof these lakes are considered. There was difficulty with the GIS model matchingsatellite images.Chin, Anne, Laura R. Laurencio, and Adriana E. Martinez. 2008. The hydrologicimportance of small- and medium-sized dams: Examples from Texas.
 Professional Geographer
60, no. 2: 238-251.Mansfield Dam, Texas. Source:http://wn.com/Mansfield_Dam,_Austin,Texas  Using Texas as an example area, this article highlighted the role of small-andmedium-sized dams affecting the surface hydrology of river systems. The primary approach to accomplish this was to use a GIS to analyze the data from theNational Inventory of Dams (NID). The geographic coordinates associated withdams in the NID enabled the data to be imported into ArcGIS 9.1. Within the GIS, the database was queried for dams in Texas for four size classes.The results of these queries enabled the calculation of multiple indexes associated with reservoir storage and dam density to assess the hydrologic impacts of dams based on size.
 
 The authors discovered that the primary difference in hydrologic effects betweensmall- and medium-sized dams and larger ones lies in the extent of fragmentationin river landscapes.Evans, James E., Jennifer M. Huxley, and Robert F. Vincent. 2007. Upstreamchannel changes following dam construction and removal using a GIS/RemoteSensing approach.
 JAWRA Journal of the American Water Resources Association
43: 683-697.Huron River Dam. Source: http://photo.net/photodb/photo?photo_id=9070662  This study applies a GIS/Remote Sensing (RS) approach to study changes overtime in the Huron River. It specifically focuses on individual bars and channelpatterns upstream of a low-head dam. The authors contended that even relatively small dams can be responsible for significant fluvial modifications upstream of the reservoir.The authors used historical aerial photographs and created a shapefile for each of the 12 bed forms identified using ArcGIS. The polygons were drawn around each bedform at the waterline for the day the image was collected. The shapefiles werethen imported into a geodatabase and converted to a feature class, which
populate the attribute table of the polygon’s properties.
 The authors stated that GIS and RS are tools that can be applied to study the behaviors of individual bedforms to interpret changes in important geomorphicparameters over time, specifically in reference to the size, shape and position of  bars and channel sinuosity.Gross, Eric J. and Glenn E. Moylen. 2007. Estimating the hydrological influenceof Maryland state dams using GIS and the HEC-1 model.
 Journal of Hydrologic Engineering
12, no. 6: 690-693.The authors performed this study using stage-storage discharge curves for 34dams in the state of Maryland, the GISHydro 200 GIS, and the VSACE HEC-1hydrologic modeling software package. By applying equations to the GIS databaseof all the dams in Maryland, they determined the effect of different values of critical Ra (one minus the fraction of the natural discharge at a specific locationdownstream of a dam) on the kilometers of a stream that would be considered

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