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Verbs of Aqua-Motion in Kashmiri

Verbs of Aqua-Motion in Kashmiri

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Published by api-3756098
By Omkar N Koul
By Omkar N Koul

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Published by: api-3756098 on Oct 19, 2008
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05/09/2014

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Verbs of Aqua-Motion in Kashmiri
Omkar N. Koul
Indian Institute of Language Studies
onkoul@yahoo.com
Introduction

The verbs of aqua-motion is an interesting category. Usually they have different variations and are used in different contexts. Besides lexical meanings, most of them have metaphorical extensions of meaning. They are interesting for their morphological extensions as well. They may be simple, compound or conjunct verbs. The study of verbs of aqua-motion in Indian languages deserve a special attention by grammarians and typologists. It is important to study their use in different contexts reflecting at their lexical and metaphorical meanings. Verbs of aqua-motion have not been studied from this point in Kashmiri so far. Here we will attempt to describe these verbs with special reference to the verbs of swimming, sailing and floating. We will point out the difference between directed and non-directed verbs of motion, their variations, semantic values of direction, verbs of emersion and submersion, general verbs of motion and their metaphorical extensions which would facilitate their comparison with similar verbs in other Indian languages from typological point of view.

1. Swimming (human beings, animals)

The main verb for describing the motion of swimming in Kashmiri is tsha:nTh va:yin\u2019 . It is a conjunct verb. This verb is compatible with all sort of moving subjects: people, beasts, water birds, fish. It is not used with inanimate things like ships, boats etc., e.g.,

1.

lADkI chu tsha:nTh va:ya:n
boy is swim play-present indefinite/progressive
The

boy
is
swimming
to
the
shore.\u2019
2.
me hech tsha:NT va:yin yeli bI pa:tsI vuhur o:sus
I \u2013erg learnt swim play-inf.fs when I five years old was
\u2018I
learnt
to
swim
when
I
was
5
years
old.\u2019
3.

shur\u2019 chi tsha:nTh va:ya:n tI bi:cas nAzdi:kh ginda:n
children are swim play-pre and beach-dat near play-pre
\u2019The children are swimming and playing near the beach.\u2019

4.
swanIhAr\u2019
ga:D
cha
tsha:NTh
va:ya:n
pA:nis

manz
golden fish is swim play-pre water-dat in
\u2018A

golden
fish
is
swimming
in
water\u2019.
5.

batakh pu:t\u2019 chi batakas patI patI tsha:NTh va:ya:n
ducklings are duck-dat behind swim play-pre
\u2018The ducklings are swimming after the duck.\u2019

2
An ability to swim for living beings is described by tsha:NTh za:nIn\u2019 or tsh:NTh yin\u2019
6.

su chu tsh:NTh va:yin\u2019 za:na:n
he-nominative is swim play-inf.fs (operator) know-pre
\u2018He knows how to swim.\u2019

7.

tAmis cha tsha:NTh va:yin\u2019 yiva:n/taga:n
he-dative is swim play-inf.fs. come-pre/know-pre
\u2018He knows how to swim\u2019.

Notice that in (6) the subject is in nominative and in (7) it is in dative.
The difference between directed and non-directed swimming is expressed by the use of the
directional adverb phrases like \u2018yor kun \u2018towards this direction\u2019, ho:r kun \u2018towards that direction\u2019,h\u2019or
kun \u2018towards upstream \u2018, bwan kun \u2018towards downstream\u2019, etc. Non-directed swimming is expressed by
the absence of the adverbial phrases.
8.

mohnI chu yo:r/ho:r/h\u2019or/bwan kun tsha:NTh va:ya:n
Mohan is this/that/up/down towards swim play-pre/prog
\u2018Mohan is swimming towards this/that/up/down direction\u2019.

These directional values like \u2018to\u2019, \u2018from\u2019, \u2018across\u2019 etc are expressed by the use of the adverbapo:r
\u2018across\u2019 and postpositionskun \u2018towards \u2018 andp eThI \u2018from\u2019, e.g.,
9.

su tor dArya:vas tsha:NTi apo:r
he crossed river-dat swim-abl across
\u2018He crossed the river by swim\u2019.

10.

mohnI tor yemi baThi peThI tsha:NTi apo:r
Mohan crossed this-abl river bank-abl from swim-abl across
\u2018Mohan swam across from this river bank to the other side\u2019.

There are expressions like tsh:NTi yun \u2018 to come by swimming\u2019, or tsha:NTi gatshun \u2018to go by
swimming\u2019. There are other expressions too such as tsha:NTh va:yini yiyiv \u2018come for swimming\u2019 or
tsha:NTh va:yini gAtshiv \u2018go for swimming\u2019.
A causative suffix -Ina:v is added to the verb stem to derive the causative forms, e.g.,
11.

su chu necivis dArya:vas manz tsha:NTh va:yIna:va:n
he is son-dat river-dat in swim play-caus-pre/prog
\u2018He is making his son swim.\u2019 Or,
\u2018He makes his son swim.\u2019

There are certain idiomatic and metaphoric extensions of meaning of this motion verb. For instance, the idiomatic expression vwathI tsh:NTh karIn\u2019 \u2018to make all efforts\u2019 is associated with tsha:NTh \u2018swim\u2019, e.g.,

12.
su chu no:kri pra:vnI khA:trI vwathI- tsha:NTh kara:n
he is job obtain-inf-abl for rise-swim doing
3
\u2018He is making all efforts to secure a job\u2019.
2. Sailing

The main verbs used for sailing of ships and boats arepakun \u2018to walk, to move\u2019, andtarun \u2018to cross.\u2019 Whereaspakun can be used for both upstream and downstream directions,tarun is used for across the river, sea, e.g.,

13.

na:v cha va:rI va:rI bwan kun paka:n
boat is slowly downstream sail-pre
\u2018The boat is slowly sailing downstream\u2019.

14.

pla:nI mutA:bik chu so:n jaha:z Sri lanka: kun paka:n
plan-abl according is our ship Sri Lanka toward sail-pre
\u2018According to the plan, our ship is sailing to Sri Lanka.\u2019

15.

dAriya:vas cha na:v va:rI va:rI tara:n
river-dat is boat slowly cross-pre
\u2018The boat is crossing the river slowly\u2019 Or,
\u2018The boat crosses the river slowly.\u2019

16.

bI chus yath monDis peTh dAriya:vas tormut
I-nom have this-dat log-dat on river-dat cross-pptc
\u2018I have crossed the river riding this log.\u2019

17.

samandaras manz chu jaha:z te:z paka:n
sea-dat in is ship fast walk/sail-pre
\u2018The ship is sailing in the sea fast.\u2019 Or,
\u2018The ship sails in the sea fast.\u2019

18.

na:v cha va:rI va:rI paka:n
boat is slowly walk/move-pre
\u2018The boat is moving slowly.\u2019 Or,
\u2018The boat moves slowly.\u2019

These verbs are compatible with all kinds of vessels: big ship, sailing boat, boat with rows etc.
The causative derivatives of these are formed by adding the causative suffix\u2013Ina:v, e.g.,
19.

hA:Nz chu na:vi pakIna:va:n
boatman is boat-dat row-caus-pre
\u2018The boatman is rowing the boat.\u2019 or
\u2018The boatman is making the boat move\u2019.

There are quite a few idioms and metaphoric expressions using the main verbpakun \u2018to walk,
move\u2019, andtarun \u2018to cross\u2019, e.g.,
20.

jaha:zI chu hava: h\u2019uv paka:n
airplane/ship is air like move-pre
\u2018The airplane/ship is moving as fast as air\u2019.

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