3)The structures act like an inverted pendulum, and unless it is rigid, yet flexible enough, and can provide friction to dampen the oscillations and bring the structure to rest early, the damageincreases.4)The horizontal seismic force acting on the structure is directly proportional to the weight of thestructure. Lighter structures suffer less damage.5)The vertical seismic forces can topple a structure unless it is well founded.6)The oscillatory and inverted pendulum - like effects also cause overturning movements unless thestructure has its centre of gravity well near the ground.7)The vibratory effect loosens superficial and poorly anchored parts of structures like parapets, plaster on walls and ceilings, and rubble and bricks from walls unless they are reinforcedadequately to act as whole units. Tiles cascade down, roofing sheets and trusses get dislodged and partitions collapse. In case of modern steel or R.C.C. framed buildings well founded, the damageis mostly of this nature.8)Commonsense design and honest construction are necessary.
3. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS3.1 General design criteria
As discussed earlier during an earthquake ground motions occur in a random fashion, bothhorizontally and vertically, in all directions radiating from the epi-centre. These ground motions causestructures to vibrate and induce inertia forces on them. Hence, structures whether Non engineering or Engineering in such locations need to be suitably designed and detailed to ensure stability, strengthand serviceability with acceptable levels of safety under seismic effect. The criteria adopted by codesfor fixing the level of the design seismic loadings can be summarised as belowi)Structure should be able to resist minor earthquakes without damage.ii)Structure should be able to resist moderate earthquakes without structural damage but withsome non structural damage.iii)Structures should be able to resist major earthquakes without collapse but with some structuraland non structural damage.The probability of collapse of structures during earthquake can be minimised by improvingdamping, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the structures. The developments in the philosophy of ductility based design is bound to reduce earthquake hazard and protect structures withminor damage. The ductility approach is to provide energy absorbing and dissipating capability of thestructure since reinforced concrete is relatively less ductile in compression and shear, dissipation of seismic energy is best achieved by flexural yielding. In engineering construction ductile momentresisting frame i.e. a frame of continuous construction, comprising flexural members and columnsdesigned and detailed to accommodate reversible lateral displacement after formation of plastic hinge,will satisfy the ductility considerations. While in Non engineering constructions simple constructionaldetailing and adopting appropriate design these objectives can be achieved.
3.2 General Design Objectives
The objective of special design and detailing provisions in different I.S.codes is to ensure theoverall ductile behaviour of structure and it's component member. Some important designconsiderations in providing ductility includei)Using low tensile steel ratio ( with low grade steel and using compression steel)ii)Providing adequate stirrups to ensure that shear failure does not precede flexural member.iii)Confining concrete and compression steel by closely spaced hoops or Spirals