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Published by: DIPAK VINAYAK SHIRBHATE on Oct 19, 2008
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Most losses of life and property during earthquakes have occurred due to collapse of structure. Lack of understanding of earthquake resistant features reinforcement detailing, developments in the philosophy of ductility bases design has aggravated the problem. One of the most important factor causing damage tostructure during earthquakes is lack of adequate structural connections along with the other factors. Theobservations of structural performance in earthquake damaged areas in the past also identifies the need for  proper reinforcement detailing in non engineering as well as Engineering structures.This paper is aimed to discuss and describes the reinforcement detailing in earthquake resistant NonEngineering and Engineering Structures. The material requirements, I.S. code provisions for designing andreinforcement detailing in the different component parts of structure along with illustrations are brieflydiscussed. 
Amongst all the natural disasters, earthquakes can prove most deadly as it has the leastduration of occurance but causing huge loss to human lives and property. Increasing magnitude of seismic risk to the life could be imagined by the fact that in India more than 55 % of areas lies inactive seismic zones.Considering the fact that in future we have to live with the earthquake tremors it becomesessential to introduce earthquake resistant features in the construction of structures. The main factorscontributing to the damage of structures during earthquakes have been their heavy weight, low tensileand shearing resistance, lack of adequate structural connections, poor quality of construction anddeterioration of strength with the passage of time.This paper highlights one of the major aspect of inadequate detailing of reinforcement anddescribes the designing and detailing consideration in non engineering and engineering constructionalong with I.S.code provisions, material requirements, and general design consideration.The term Non engineering building may only be vaguely defined as a building whose analysisfor lateral earthquake forces would defy reasonable mathematical solutions and the design will be based mostly on a set of specifications derived from observed behaviour of such buildings during pastearthquakes and trained engineering judgement. Load bearing masonary wall buildings studwalls and brick nogged constructions in wood composite constructions using load bearing walls and piers inmasonary, reinforced concrete, steel or wooden posts are the examples of Non Engineeringconstructions. Where as Reinforced concrete or steel frame buildings, tall buildings using differenttypes of structural system involving the dynamic analysis for seismic loads and ductility designconsiderations can be termed as Engineering constructions.
1)Seismic forces are very irregular and buildings are variously affected due to complex nature of structures. Therefore, standardization of seismic forces which act and provisions required to bemade in structures to withstand them are very difficult.2)Seismic forces act horizontally, vertically and in a vibratory and oscillatory manner. The result isthat unless the structure is well-knit, homogeneous and all its components securely anchored andconnected with one another, it is shaken to pieces to a degree depending on the severity of theseismic forces.
3)The structures act like an inverted pendulum, and unless it is rigid, yet flexible enough, and can provide friction to dampen the oscillations and bring the structure to rest early, the damageincreases.4)The horizontal seismic force acting on the structure is directly proportional to the weight of thestructure. Lighter structures suffer less damage.5)The vertical seismic forces can topple a structure unless it is well founded.6)The oscillatory and inverted pendulum - like effects also cause overturning movements unless thestructure has its centre of gravity well near the ground.7)The vibratory effect loosens superficial and poorly anchored parts of structures like parapets, plaster on walls and ceilings, and rubble and bricks from walls unless they are reinforcedadequately to act as whole units. Tiles cascade down, roofing sheets and trusses get dislodged and partitions collapse. In case of modern steel or R.C.C. framed buildings well founded, the damageis mostly of this nature.8)Commonsense design and honest construction are necessary.
3. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS3.1 General design criteria
As discussed earlier during an earthquake ground motions occur in a random fashion, bothhorizontally and vertically, in all directions radiating from the epi-centre. These ground motions causestructures to vibrate and induce inertia forces on them. Hence, structures whether Non engineering or Engineering in such locations need to be suitably designed and detailed to ensure stability, strengthand serviceability with acceptable levels of safety under seismic effect. The criteria adopted by codesfor fixing the level of the design seismic loadings can be summarised as belowi)Structure should be able to resist minor earthquakes without damage.ii)Structure should be able to resist moderate earthquakes without structural damage but withsome non structural damage.iii)Structures should be able to resist major earthquakes without collapse but with some structuraland non structural damage.The probability of collapse of structures during earthquake can be minimised by improvingdamping, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the structures. The developments in the philosophy of ductility based design is bound to reduce earthquake hazard and protect structures withminor damage. The ductility approach is to provide energy absorbing and dissipating capability of thestructure since reinforced concrete is relatively less ductile in compression and shear, dissipation of seismic energy is best achieved by flexural yielding. In engineering construction ductile momentresisting frame i.e. a frame of continuous construction, comprising flexural members and columnsdesigned and detailed to accommodate reversible lateral displacement after formation of plastic hinge,will satisfy the ductility considerations. While in Non engineering constructions simple constructionaldetailing and adopting appropriate design these objectives can be achieved.
3.2 General Design Objectives
The objective of special design and detailing provisions in different I.S.codes is to ensure theoverall ductile behaviour of structure and it's component member. Some important designconsiderations in providing ductility includei)Using low tensile steel ratio ( with low grade steel and using compression steel)ii)Providing adequate stirrups to ensure that shear failure does not precede flexural member.iii)Confining concrete and compression steel by closely spaced hoops or Spirals
iv)Proper detailing with regard to anchorage, splicing, minimum reinforcement, bending,termination, extension etc.
3.3. MaterialsReinforcement and concrete
Ductility requires the use of low grades of steel having well defined and longer yield plateau sothat plastic hinges formed will have larger rotation capacities leading to greater energy dissipation. Aslower the grade of steel the higher is the ratio of the ultimate tensile strength to yield strength. Ahigher ratio is desirable as it results in increased length of plastic hinge and thereby increased plasticrotation capacity. From these considerations mild steel ( Fe250) is best suited for flexuralreinforcement in earthquake resistant design but will require larger cross sections. I.S.code 13920 -1993 permits use of Fe415 steel but prohibits the use of higher grades than Fe415.I.S. code limits the minimum grade of concrete to M20, use of very high strength isundesirable due to it's lower compressive strain which inturn affect ductility. The ACI and Canadiancodes limits cylinder strength to 30 Mpa.
 Non engineering constructions can be made enough earthquake resistant through some simple principles of planning and reinforcing techniques. In this paper discussion is limited to onlyreinforcement details at critical sections in the structures. The extent of reinforcing depends upon theseismic intensity.
4.1. Horizontal Reinforcement in masonary Walls.
For imparting horizontal bending strength against plane action for out of plane inertia load andfor tying the perpendicular walls together. The following reinforcing arrangements are provided.
Fig No. 1

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