In the research literature, the term "Pan-Turkism" is used to describe the idea of political, cultural andethnic unity of allTurkic-speakingpeople.Turanismis a closely related movement but a more generalterm than Turkism, since Turkism applies only to the Turkic peoples. However, researchers andpoliticians engaged in the field of Turkic ideology have used these terms interchangeably in a multitudeof sources and literature.
and can be seen inparallel with European developments likePan-SlavismandPan-Germanismor withPan-Iranism.Proponents use the latter most often as a point of comparison as the concept of "Turkic" is not a trueracial or ethnic description but more of a linguistic and cultural distinction. This is to differentiate it fromthe term "Turkish" which is more of an ethnic/racial term for the citizens and denizens primarily residingin Turkey. Pan-Turkic ideas and "re-unification" movements have been popular since the collapse of theSoviet Unionin Central Asian and otherTurkiccountries.
Pan-Turkish rally in Istanbul, March 2009In 1804,TatartheologianKursavi
wrote a treatise calling for Islam’s modernization. Kursavi was a
founder of the religious thought of Jadidism(from Arabic 'jadid', which means 'new'). The idea of Jadidism was encouragement of critical thinking, as opposed to insistence on unquestioning loyalty. Itsupported education for Muslims and promoted equality among the sexes; advocated tolerance for other
faiths, Turkic cultural unity, and openness to Europe’s cultural legacy.
In 1843 inKazanthe Jadidmovement was created. Its aim was a semi-secular modernization and educational reform, and within
Jadid for the first time sprout the idea of a national, and not religious identity of the Turks. Before thatthey were solely Muslim subjects of Russia, and the Empire continued this attitude to its very collapse.
Following theupsurge in Russian colonization of the Volga area in 1880s,the Islamic social movementJaddidism added motives of national-liberation, but as a result of increase of the imperial tendencies inthe Russian internal politics after the 1907 many partisans of Turkic unity immigrated to Turkey.
‖committee came to power in Ottoman Turkey, and the
Ottoman Empireturned toward nationalistic ideology. From the 16th c. the Empire was a Muslim Empire and the Sultanwas aCaliphfor the part of the Muslim lands under his control. From Russia, the exiled Enlightenmentleaders espousing Pan-Turkism fled toIstanbul,where a powerful Pan-Turkic movement rose. From thattime, the Turkish Pan-Turkism grew into a nationalistic, ethnically oriented replacement of theCaliphateby a worldwide state. Following thefall of the Ottoman Empirewith its multi-cultural and multi-ethnicpopulation, influenced by emerging racial theories andTurkish nationalismof theYoung Turks,sometried to replace the lost empire with a new Turkish commonwealth. But a speedy collapse of the OttomanEmpire brought aboutMustafa Kemal (Atatürk),who replaced Pan-Turkic idealism with solelyAnatoliannationalism aimed at preservation of an Anatolian nucleus instead of global imperial pretences, with someisolationist tendencies. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk penalized Pan-Turkist groups and closed all publicationsof Pan-Turkic orientation.
While of little impact during much of the 20th century, the dissolution of theSoviet Unionin the late 20thcentury meant that the majority of the Turkic peoples were suddenly again able to exert considerableindependence in business and political endeavours.
The aim of all Turks is to unite with the Turkic borders. History is affording us today the lastopportunity. In order for theIslamic worldnot to be forever fragmented it is necessary that thecampaign againstKarabaghbe not allowed to abate. As a matter of fact drive the point home inAzericircles that the campaign should be pursued with greater determination and severity.
Today, many new Pan-Turkic movements and organizations are concentrating on economic integration of the 7 sovereignTurkic states,and hope to achieve an economic-political union very similar to theEU.The general popularity of these movements has risen dramatically over the years in the Turkicworld.
However, these efforts have not met the expectations of either the Turkic states nor the Pan-Turkistsentiment in Turkey. For example:
Housing projects of modest size promised to theCrimean Tatarshave not been completed aftermany years.
AlthoughTurkmenistan,Uzbekistan,andAzerbaijanhave switched to the Latin alphabet, theyare not as compatible with the Turkish alphabet as Turkey hoped.Kazakhstanhas decided toswitch its alphabet back to Latin from the current Cyrillic,
but the transition has been slow.Kyrgyzstan,meanwhile, has never seriously considered adopting the Latin alphabet - although theidea had been mooted among some politicians in the first few years of indepedence. Additionally,other problems persist, such as lack or delay of the printing and teaching materials.
Pan-Turkism is and has always been a movement viewed with suspicion by many, often perceived asnothing else but a new form of Turkish imperial ambition. Some view the movement as racist andchauvinistic, particularly when considering the associated racial and historical teachings. Specifically, theyoung Turks who carried pan-Turkist ideologies
Pan-Turkism is also cited by critics as a direct cause for theArmenian Genocideof 1915, in which EnverPasha was involved, as an attempt to remove non-Turkic and non-Muslim minorities from the lateOttoman Empirein order to foster a new Pan-Turkish state.