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Pan Turkism

Pan Turkism

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Pan-Turkism is a nationalist movement that emerged in 1880s among the Turkic intellectuals of the Russian Empire, with the aim of cultural and political unification of all Turkic peoples
Pan-Turkism is a nationalist movement that emerged in 1880s among the Turkic intellectuals of the Russian Empire, with the aim of cultural and political unification of all Turkic peoples

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Published by: Καταρα του Χαμ on Nov 19, 2011
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Pan-Turkism
Pan-Turkism
is a nationalist movement that emerged in 1880s among the Turkic intellectuals of theRussian Empire,with the aim of cultural and political unification of allTurkic peoples
. 
Name
In the research literature, the term "Pan-Turkism" is used to describe the idea of political, cultural andethnic unity of allTurkic-speakingpeople.Turanismis a closely related movement but a more general term than Turkism, since Turkism applies only to the Turkic peoples. However, researchers andpoliticians engaged in the field of Turkic ideology have used these terms interchangeably in a multitudeof sources and literature.
 The term "Turkism" started to
 be used with a prefix "Pan" (from Greek πᾶν,
pan = all), for a "Panturkism".
 While the various Turkic peoples often share historical, cultural and linguistic roots, the rising of a pan-Turkic political movement is a phenomenon only of the 19th and 20th century
 and can be seen inparallel with European developments likePan-SlavismandPan-Germanismor withPan-Iranism.  Proponents use the latter most often as a point of comparison as the concept of "Turkic" is not a trueracial or ethnic description but more of a linguistic and cultural distinction. This is to differentiate it fromthe term "Turkish" which is more of an ethnic/racial term for the citizens and denizens primarily residingin Turkey. Pan-Turkic ideas and "re-unification" movements have been popular since the collapse of theSoviet Unionin Central Asian and otherTurkiccountries.
History
Pan-Turkish rally in Istanbul, March 2009In 1804,TatartheologianKursavi
wrote a treatise calling for Islam’s modernization. Kursavi was a
founder of the religious thought of Jadidism(from Arabic 'jadid', which means 'new'). The idea of Jadidism was encouragement of critical thinking, as opposed to insistence on unquestioning loyalty. Itsupported education for Muslims and promoted equality among the sexes; advocated tolerance for other
faiths, Turkic cultural unity, and openness to Europe’s cultural legacy.
 In 1843 inKazanthe Jadid movement was created. Its aim was a semi-secular modernization and educational reform, and within
 
Jadid for the first time sprout the idea of a national, and not religious identity of the Turks. Before thatthey were solely Muslim subjects of Russia, and the Empire continued this attitude to its very collapse.
 Following theupsurge in Russian colonization of the Volga area in 1880s,the Islamic social movementJaddidism added motives of national-liberation, but as a result of increase of the imperial tendencies inthe Russian internal politics after the 1907 many partisans of Turkic unity immigrated to Turkey.
In 1908, the
committee came to power in Ottoman Turkey, and the 
Ottoman Empireturned toward nationalistic ideology. From the 16th c. the Empire was a Muslim Empire and the Sultanwas aCaliphfor the part of the Muslim lands under his control. From Russia, the exiled Enlightenmentleaders espousing Pan-Turkism fled toIstanbul,where a powerful Pan-Turkic movement rose. From thattime, the Turkish Pan-Turkism grew into a nationalistic, ethnically oriented replacement of theCaliphateby a worldwide state. Following thefall of the Ottoman Empirewith its multi-cultural and multi-ethnicpopulation, influenced by emerging racial theories andTurkish nationalismof theYoung Turks,some tried to replace the lost empire with a new Turkish commonwealth. But a speedy collapse of the OttomanEmpire brought aboutMustafa Kemal (Atatürk),who replaced Pan-Turkic idealism with solelyAnatolian nationalism aimed at preservation of an Anatolian nucleus instead of global imperial pretences, with someisolationist tendencies. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk penalized Pan-Turkist groups and closed all publicationsof Pan-Turkic orientation.
 One of the most significant early exponents of pan-Turkism wasEnver Pasha,theOttomanMinister of  War andactingCommander-in-Chief duringWorld War I.He later became one of the leaders of the national-liberationBasmachiuprising against the Russian Empire and Soviet Russian rule inCentral Asia. The last episode in the history of Pan-Turkism played out during WWII, when theNazisattempted toundermine Soviet unity under a flag of Pan-Turkism in their fight with the USSR.The German intrigues,however, did not bear any results.
 While of little impact during much of the 20th century, the dissolution of theSoviet Unionin the late 20thcentury meant that the majority of the Turkic peoples were suddenly again able to exert considerableindependence in business and political endeavours.
 
The aim of all Turks is to unite with the Turkic borders. History is affording us today the lastopportunity. In order for theIslamic worldnot to be forever fragmented it is necessary that thecampaign againstKarabaghbe not allowed to abate. As a matter of fact drive the point home inAzericircles that the campaign should be pursued with greater determination and severity.
 
Today, many new Pan-Turkic movements and organizations are concentrating on economic integration of the 7 sovereignTurkic states,and hope to achieve an economic-political union very similar to theEU.  The general popularity of these movements has risen dramatically over the years in the Turkicworld.
[
]
 
Turkey's role
 
Turkeyhas become a major business partner to many Central Asian Turkic states, helping with the reformof higher education, the introduction of theLatin alphabet,economic development and commerce.
[
]
However, these efforts have not met the expectations of either the Turkic states nor the Pan-Turkistsentiment in Turkey. For example:
 
Housing projects of modest size promised to theCrimean Tatarshave not been completed aftermany years.
 
AlthoughTurkmenistan,Uzbekistan,andAzerbaijanhave switched to the Latin alphabet, they are not as compatible with the Turkish alphabet as Turkey hoped.Kazakhstanhas decided toswitch its alphabet back to Latin from the current Cyrillic,
 but the transition has been slow.Kyrgyzstan,meanwhile, has never seriously considered adopting the Latin alphabet - although theidea had been mooted among some politicians in the first few years of indepedence. Additionally,other problems persist, such as lack or delay of the printing and teaching materials.
Criticism
Pan-Turkism is and has always been a movement viewed with suspicion by many, often perceived asnothing else but a new form of Turkish imperial ambition. Some view the movement as racist andchauvinistic, particularly when considering the associated racial and historical teachings. Specifically, theyoung Turks who carried pan-Turkist ideologies
 as their guiding principle are accused of theArmenian Genocide,Greek genocideandAssyrian Genocide. 
GenocideArmenian Genocide
Pan-Turkism is also cited by critics as a direct cause for theArmenian Genocideof 1915, in which EnverPasha was involved, as an attempt to remove non-Turkic and non-Muslim minorities from the lateOttoman Empirein order to foster a new Pan-Turkish state.
Greek Genocide
 is a term used by some academics to refer to the fate of theGreekpopulation of  the Ottoman Empire during and in the aftermath of World War I(1914
 – 
1923). Like Armenians andAssyrians, the Greeks were subjected to various forms of persecutionincluding massacres,expulsions,  anddeath marchesbyYoung Turkand Kemalist authorities
[
]
. George W. Rendel of the BritishForeign Office, among other diplomats, noted the massacres and deportations of Greeks during the post-Armistice period.
 It is estimated that hundreds of thousands of Ottoman Greeks may have died duringthis period as a result of these persecutions.
Assyrian Genocide
Alongside the Armenian and Greek Genocides, the Assyrian Genocide took place at the hand of the pan-Turkist young Turk regime in the Ottoman empire.
 By 1922, in a memorandum from the Assyro-Chaldean National Council, an estimate of approximately 275,000 Assyrians were killed.
Dersim Ethnocide

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