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Logic gates

A logic gate is an electronic circuit, which makes logical decisions. It has ohe

output and one or more inputs. The output signal appears only for certain combinations of input signals. Logic gates are the basic building blocks from which most of the digital systems are built up. They implement the hardware of logical function, based on the logical algebra developed by George Boole. A unique characteristic of the Boolean algebra is that variables used in it can assume only one of the two values i.e. either 0 or 1.

In this experiment, we will study the OR, AND, NOT, NAND, NOR gates

some applications. They are used in computers, telephone switching systems,

industrial control system, and automation etc.

Objects of the experiment

To understand "How the basic logic gates work?".

Introduction

Institute of Phsics

Logic gates

BS P-III

Part I: The OR Gate

The OR gate is represent by the following algebraic equation: A+B=C. It means that the logic of output should be '1' , when either A or B or both are '1'. A truth table may be defined as "a table, which gives the output states for all possible combinations of the in puts.

A

B

c

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

Co peleteTruth table for the double input OR gate.

Figure1(a):

Symbolic representation

for an OR gate.

m

K

A

B

C

D1

D2

Figure1: circuitdiagram (b) for an OR gate.

Logic circuits

BS P-III

Diode OR Gate

i)

n A is at '+5V' , D1 is forward-biased and hence conducts. We get

' + 5 V ' at the point C.

ii) Same mechanism happens if B is at '+5V' , D2 conducts switching the point

C at '+5V'.

iii)

n both A and B are at '+5V, both the diodes D, and D2 conduct, and

the point C is again at '+5V'.

iv) The point C will be at 'OV, if and only if both A and B are at '0V'.

When we perform the experiment, the voltage at the point C is never equal to the applied voltage at the point A and B. This is because of potential drop across the pn-junction, whitch is 0.7V for silicon diodes, and 0.3V for germanium diodes.

How does it work...

Whe

Whe

Procedure

Construct the curcuit given in fig-1(b).

Verify the truth table given by applying the input voltage ( A & B as

given in table ) and recording out puts.

1.

2.

(b)

Part II: The AND Gate

In Boolean algebra, the logic AND is represented by the symbol "." or 'x'. Its

working equation is AxB = C or A.B=C, i.e. C = 0 if any of two A or B is '0'.

(a)

(b)

Diode AND Gate

2.2 K

D1

D2

+5V

AB

C

Figure2: A Symbolic representation (a),and circuit diagram(b) for an AND gate.

Logic circuits

BS P-III

in fig 2(b). If any of the point A or B (or both) is at zero potential, the potential

of point C will be nearly zero, as the voltage across a forward- biased diode is very small (0.3 V). Moreover if both A and B are connected to '+5V' the point C will be at '+5V', because now both the diodes are off. This is called a 'diode AND gate' for obvious reason. More than two diodes may be used to form a. triple or multiple AND gate.

The circuit

A

B

c

0

0

1

0

0

1

1

1

Truth table for double input AND gate.

i)

When A is at '0V ' diode D1 conducts. So the point C is driven to 'OV'.

ii)

The same mechanism is repeated if B is at 'OV'. Then D2 conducts which

switches the point C at 'OV'.

iii)

When both A and B are at 'OV', both the diodes conduct and the point C is

at 'OV'.

iv)

When both the inputs A and B are at '+5V', no current will flow. The point

C will be at '+5V', and we get the logic answer ' 1'.

How does it work...

Procedure

Construct the curcuit given in fig-2(b).

Verify the truth table given by applying the input voltage ( A & B as

given in table ) and recording out puts.

1.

2.

Part III: The NOT Gate

This gate consists of three elements, a transistor and two resistors. It is called the NOT gate, because its output is opposite to its input. It is also called an inverter. It has one input and one output, as shown in the truth table. Its symbolic representation and circuit diagrams are shown in figure 3.

A

c

1

0

Truth table for NOT gate.

3

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