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Toward a Real Cosmology in the 21st Century

Toward a Real Cosmology in the 21st Century

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Published by SyncOrSwim
A comprehensive overview of the Electric Universe paradigm and its challenge to conventional astronomy and cosmology.
A comprehensive overview of the Electric Universe paradigm and its challenge to conventional astronomy and cosmology.

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Published by: SyncOrSwim on Nov 21, 2011
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04/29/2012

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The Open Astronomy Journal,
2011,
 4,
(Suppl 2-M5) 191-210 191
 
1874-3811/11 2011 Bentham Open
 
Open Access
Toward a Real Cosmology in the 21
st
Century
Wallace W. Thornhill
*
 
Vemasat Australia, Weston Creek, A.C.T. 2611, Australia
Abstract:
A real cosmology must be a broad and coherent
natural philosophy.
It may always be incomplete, based on ourlimitations, but to be valid there can be
no
 
exceptions
in our experience. In particular, cosmology must address issues of life and the human condition. Therefore it must be a truly interdisciplinary pursuit. Modern specialized science is a hostileenvironment for such a quest. For example, the world’s largest professional body, the Institute for Electrical andElectronic Engineers (IEEE), recognizes plasma cosmology while it remains unheard of by students of astronomy. Plasmacosmology receives no publicity although it deals empirically with the electromagnetic behavior of plasma, whichconstitutes almost the entire visible universe. Unlike theoretical big bang cosmology, plasma cosmology can claimsuccessful predictions without recourse to hypothetical matter, energies and forces. However, despite its many successes,plasma cosmology cannot claim to be the final answer because it does not deal with unsolved problems in basic and stellarphysics. The new Electric Universe cosmology addresses those fundamental problems and in doing so offers abreakthrough in understanding of ourselves and our place in the universe. It provides practical insights for broad scientificprogress and space exploration. The Electric Universe is a convergent, interdisciplinary cosmology that attempts, in thewords of E. O. Wilson,
“consilience,”
or
“the unity of knowledge.”
 
Keywords:
Natural philosophy, Big Bang cosmology, plasma cosmology, electric universe cosmology, cosmic microwavebackground, discordant redshift, electric star, red giant, white dwarf, supernova.
1. REMARKS ON THE STATE OF COSMOLOGY
The discarding of an old prejudice and the cultivation of a new outlook are not matters that can be completed in amoment. One first catches a glimpse of a new way of regard-ing things, and begins to see a few outstanding features of his surroundings in a new light. But he does not immediatelyrealise that the whole scene has been transformed. Deep-seated beliefs remain, incompatible with the new outlook though they may be, and only gradually begin to take on astrange appearance and arouse misgivings.
—Herbert Din-gle, Astronomer Royal [1].Cosmology is defined as the study of the origin, history,structure and dynamics of the universe. As such it provides aglobal context for both our science and culture so that cos-mology is sometimes called ‘the queen of the sciences.’ Tolive up to this title, cosmology must be a broad and coherentnatural philosophy since to be valid there can be
no
 
excep-tions
based on all of our experience. In particular, cosmology
must 
address issues of life and the human condition. So cos-mology must be a truly interdisciplinary pursuit. Modernspecialized science is a hostile environment for such a quest.Stephen Hawking epitomizes the problem when he confi-dently asserts,
“philosophy is dead”
[2]. Specialized mathe-matical theorists have usurped cosmology. It is one fieldwhere imagination reigns unchecked by principles, episte-mology, observation or commonsense. A philosopher retortsto Hawking,
“These thinkers appear unworried–blithely
 
*Address correspondence to this author at the Vemasat Australia, WestonCreek, A.C.T. 2611, Australia; Tel: +61262881932;E-mails: wal@vemasat.com; wwt@ieee.org, walt@holoscience.com
unfazed, one is tempted to say – by the fact that their theo-ries are incapable of proof or confirmation, or indeed of  falsification as required by Karl Popper and his followers. After all, it is the peculiar feature of such theories that they posit the existence of that which at present, and perhaps for-ever, eludes any form of confirmation by observation or ex- periment”
[3]. If natural philosophers are no longer in thevanguard of cosmology perhaps it is because there is noadvantage in being the leaders in a rush to nowhere.
“Who,indeed, are we as a species to dare ask such mighty ques-tions as concern the origin of the universe and in uniquearrogance believe we may have the correct answer withincosmic microseconds of the asking”
[4]. Despite the mediahoopla, there is no
real
cosmology at the beginning of the21
st
century.There are major issues that must be addressed. The bi-ologist Rupert Sheldrake has carried out experiments thatconfront our mechanistic view of biology. His commentaryapplies particularly to cosmology:
“It is interesting that the roots of the 17th-centurymechanistic world view can be found in ancient mysticalreligion. Indeed, the mechanistic view was a synthesis of twotraditions of thought, both of which were based on the mysti-cal insight that reality is timeless and changeless. One of these traditions stems from Pythagoras and Plato, who wereboth fascinated by the eternal truths of mathematics. In the17th century, this evolved into a view that nature was gov-erned by timeless ideas, proportions, principles, or laws that existed within the mind of God. This world view becamedominant and, through philosophers and scientists such asCopernicus, Kepler, Descartes, Galileo and Newton, it wasincorporated into the foundations of modern physics.
 
192
The Open Astronomy Journal, 2011, Volume 4 Wallace W. Thornhill 
 Basically, they expressed the idea that numbers, propor-tions, equations, and mathematical principles are more realthan the physical world we experience. Even today, manymathematicians incline toward this kind of Pythagorean or Platonic mysticism. They think of the physical world as areification of mathematical principles, as a reflection of eternal numerical mathematical laws. This view is alien tothe thinking of most of us, who view the physical world asthe “real” world and consider mathematical equations aman-made, and possibly inaccurate, description of that “real” world. Nevertheless, this mystical view has evolved into the currently predominant scientific viewpoint that na-ture is governed by eternal, changeless, immutable, omni- present laws. The laws of nature are everywhere and al-ways”
[5].The dominant belief in immutable, universal mathemati-cal laws keeps us in the dark, as witness the reification of hypothetical mathematical constructs like ‘dark matter,’‘dark energy’ and ‘black holes.’ In the words attributed toArtemus Ward:
“The researches of many eminent scientificmen have thrown so much darkness upon the subject, that if they continue their researches we shall soon know nothing.
Mathematics may describe observed behavior but it cannotexplain it. Having mathematical laws of physics does notequate with understanding of those laws. They may requireredefinition with better understanding. For example, we havea cosmology built upon equations for gravity and quantummechanics but with no real explanation for either. The wordsof the Astronomer Royal, Herbert Dingle, in 1951 still applyto cosmologists today:
“...they were completely deceived about the extent and nature of their achievements. They thought they were ap- proaching the end of their task of discovering the causallaws that governed the world of material substance: actuallythey were at little more than the beginning of their task of understanding the world of experience. Thinking they knewalmost everything, they in fact knew next to nothing”
[1].Considering the brief history of our science the notionthat we know the universe’s origin would seem to indicatenot that we are so advanced but that we are unable to abidethe essential mystery of creation. For the Big Bang hypothe-sis requires a miracle of creation less than a nanosecond be-fore its narrative can commence. It is an example of 
“that curious relief from an unfathomable mystery which comes from ascribing it to another one”
[1]. It seems there is a hu-man need for a creation story, together with its priesthood, tofeign mastery of the universe and to ease our existentialangst. Our Big Bang cosmology is merely another creationmyth, a miraculous story with a beginning, middle and apredicted end. It is attractive because it is familiar, havingbeen based on biblical tradition, and doesn’t take muchthought.However, the Big Bang is ideology and not science. Sci-ence welcomes refutation and the unknown while Big Bangadherents exhibit the same disregard of contrary evidenceand religious intolerance of dissent, as do fundamentalistbelievers in other creation myths.
“The common ancestor of religion and science is ignorance”
[6]
 
and Big Bang cos-mology has not yet evolved beyond a belief system. TheTempleton Foundation [7] gives prizes more valuable thanthe Nobel Prize to reconcile science and religion. There is noneed. They haven’t yet separated. That can only occur whencosmology can explain coherently and scientifically the ori-gin of human myth and religions, which logically have noth-ing to say about the creation of the universe but much to tellabout mankind’s earliest memories of terrifying events in theprehistoric heavens. It requires an interdisciplinary forensicinvestigation technique, which is not taught in any univer-sity. But it is only from investigating
all
human experience,particularly the meaning of capricious, battling celestial‘gods’ hurling thunderbolts in the heavens, that a panoramaopens on the human situation on this fragile blue planet andwe comprehend our ‘doomsday’ fear and religious longingfor the reestablishment of ‘paradise on Earth.’ From such anunderstanding a real cosmology must begin if it is to haveany relevance for us.
2. BIG BANG COSMOLOGY
While advancing technology provides a deluge of newinformation and surprises about the cosmos, our understand-ing of the universe has stalled for at least a century. Morethoughtful scientists are beginning to express frustrationabout the lack of breakthroughs in fundamental physicswhile the technology around them seems to advance at afaster pace every day. It can be argued that the problemsstem from modern education, which no longer fosters
"desireand pursuit of the whole"
but rather a narrow prescribed ex-pertise devoid of historical context. The selection of earlier‘giants’ whose shoulders we must stand on is predeterminedand unquestioned. But standing on someone else’s shouldersdoes not make us taller. The debates and politics that sur-rounded the consensus that raised those ‘giants’ to their ex-alted status are lost in the myth-making. We must worshipthe sainted geniuses our forefathers chose for us. Question-ing the ‘laws,’ the contradictions and misleading language oscience is discouraged. Yet educators are surprised by thegrowing disinterest in science. Perhaps it is because BigBang cosmology has nothing to offer about life and the hu-man condition. Instead, our cosmology is a bizarre narrativeof miracles, chance, isolation and the hopelessness of even-tual total darkness or a return to a cauldron of rebirth. Thisclaim may seem harsh but the clamour of dissent is rising.Sir Fred Hoyle, who coined the dismissive name “Big Bang”maintained a healthy skepticism throughout his career:
“Big-bang cosmology is a form of religious fundamental-ism, as is the furor over black holes, and this is why these peculiar states of mind have flourished so strongly over the past quarter century. It is in the nature of fundamentalismthat it should contain a powerful streak of irrationality and that it should not relate, in a verifiable, practical way, to theeveryday world. It is also necessary for a fundamentalist belief that it should permit the emergence of gurus, whose pronouncements can be widely reported and pondered onendlessly—endlessly for the reason that they contain nothingof substance, so that it would take an eternity of time to distileven one drop of sense from them. Big-bang cosmology re- fers to an epoch that cannot be reached by any form of as-tronomy, and, in more than two decades, it has not produced a single successful prediction”
[8].Thanks to Einstein’s promoters, Big Bang cosmology hasbecome an exercise in geometric metaphysics and computer-ized ‘virtual reality,’ with its practitioners vying for attention
 
Toward a Real Cosmology in the 21
 st
Century The Open Astronomy Journal, 2011, Volume 4
193
 
with the most bizarre confabulations. It began by weddingthe distinctly different concepts of time and space into a‘fourth dimension.’
“Henceforth space by itself, and time byitself, are doomed to fade away into mere shadows, and onlya kind of union of the two will preserve an independent real-ity”
[9]. There is an unconscious irony in the use of the word‘reality’ in such a context. If time is a dimension, point me inthe direction of time! Meaningless statements such as
“Gravitational waves are ripples in the fabric of space and time and are an important consequence of Einstein's generaltheory of relativity,”
[10] epitomize the imaginary nature of theoretical physics. What material object is ‘the fabric of space-time’ and how does matter cause it to ‘ripple?’ Thosewho do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it. Wehave returned full circle to the Pythagoreans with their innercircle of ‘mathematikoi.’ The Big Bang hypothesis is no bet-ter than the two thousand year old Ptolemaic model of thecosmos, with the Earth at the center of everything and ad hocepicyles added as necessary to preserve a geometric model.The ‘epicycles’ being added to the Big Bang are physi-cally absurd. For instance, consider the invention of ‘dark matter’ that responds to gravity but is electromagneticallyundetectable. Matter
is
an electromagnetic phenomenon, sohow is this possible? More recently, ‘dark energy’ has beenadded because observations interpreted by means of the BigBang hypothesis suggest that the universe is not merely ex-panding but the expansion is accelerating. Ignoring the ab-surdity of having all of the matter in the universe expandingfrom a non-physical point, perhaps the wildest epicycle isthat of ‘inflation’ following the inexplicable creation event.Inflation is the doubling in size of the universe about onehundred times in 10
-35
second! Inflation was invented merelyto satisfy mismatches of mathematical theory with observa-tions. The Big Bang is, by scientific standards, an execrablehypothesis that is not predictive and defies the principles of physics and common sense.The burst of energy from the Big Bang fireball is sup-posed to have cooled until it formed the relic ‘cosmic mi-crowave background radiation (CMBR),’ coming to us fromthe edge of the expanding universe, which ‘edge’ is itself apurely abstract concept. What is on the ‘other side’ if it is notpart of the universe? There cannot be an edge, or a beginningto the universe, based on our current understanding (nor canthere be ‘multiverses’). Even so, it is claimed that the BigBang has been proven. For example, an event in 1991 distin-guished by the 2006 Nobel Prize in physics was the allegedproof of the nature of the CMBR. The prize was shared be-tween John C. Mather and George F. Smoot
“for their dis-covery of the blackbody form and anisotropy of the cosmicmicrowave background [CMB] radiation”
in the CosmicBackground Explorer [COBE] project. They announced in1992 the discovery of residual heat from the Big Bang, aswell as minute variations in temperature across the sky thatare believed to indicate the beginning of structure in theearly universe that was essential for matter to gravitate intogalaxies and clusters of galaxies. Such variations are crucialin the Big Bang hypothesis, otherwise the universe would befilled with a diffuse gas of hydrogen and helium and not gal-axies and stars. The British mathematical physicist StephenHawking said the results from COBE were
“the greatest discovery of the century, if not all times.”
The Nobel Prize jury said in its citation,
“These measurements... marked theinception of cosmology as a precise science.”
Dr. Smootsaid,
“Those measurements really confirmed our picture of the Big Bang... Human beings have had the audacity to con-ceive a theory of creation and now, we are able to test that theory... If you are religious, it is like looking at God.”
Theirony is breathtaking. Big Bang cosmology is neither precisenor science. It is a pseudo-religion. No alternative, like alocal origin for the microwave background radiation, wasentertained. History had been rewritten to omit any mentionof the accurate predictions by earlier authors based on a uni-verse in equilibrium. Instead the credit was given to GeorgeGamow, a Big Bang advocate, despite his calculated CMBRtemperature of 50K! [11]. That is an error in energy densityof the universe of 10,000 times! It seems the human impera-tive for a creation myth trumps the scientific method in cos-mology and is itself worthy of psychological study.Long before the reported discovery of the CMBR, Sir Ar-thur Eddington estimated the temperature a body in spacewould cool to if all of the energy it received were from star-light within the galaxy. He found it to be 3.18 degrees Kel-vin (3.18K) [12]. André Assis noted,
“Guillaume had ob-tained a similar figure 30 years earlier. Although Eddingtondid not quote Guillaume or any other author, it is clear that he was here following someone’s else derivation”
[13].Later, Regener calculated the temperature of a body heatedby cosmic rays in starless intergalactic space to arrive at2.8K [14]. The blackbody temperature of microwave back-ground radiation measured today is 2.725K. It remains to beestablished whether that radiation is cosmic or local. Theshadowing effect expected from concentrations of nearbygalaxies has not been found. One expert has called into ques-tion both the theory and experimental detection of theCMBR.
“...it appears that many of the devices used as emis-sivity references on satellites and in the laboratory are inac-curate. They are simply unable to provide the emissivity be-lieved to exist using return-loss measurements. This is a sig-nificant scientific oversight which affects the monitoring of global climate change and the microwave background”
[15].If he is correct, the results from the recent Wilkinson Mi-crowave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), which was designed tomap the CMBR, may not be as claimed.Strictly, theories are hypotheses that have been tested andfound valid. So technically, the Big Bang was never a the-ory. It is a hypothesis that ignores the physics principle thatprohibits creation from nothing. All of the matter and energyin the Big Bang universe came from a ‘singularity,’ which isa fancy word for ‘we know not what.’ As a result, the hy-pothesis is magical and non-predictive. When it was calcu-lated that there was not enough time to synthesize all of thehelium we observe during the age of the Big Bang universe,a burst of energy was added and the mass density of neutronsand protons fudged to make things come out right. As Geof-frey Burbidge noted,
“This is why the Big Bang theory can-not be claimed to explain the microwave background or toexplain a cosmic helium value close to 0.25”
[16]. The as-tronomer Tom Van Flandern documented “The Top 30 Prob-lems with the Big Bang.” He wrote,
“Perhaps never in thehistory of science has so much quality evidence accumulated against a model so widely accepted within a field”
[17]. Yetexponents of the Big Bang turn logic on its head and claim

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