This annex provides the limit state equations for 10 important foundation rupture constellations related to monolithic caissons and rubble mound breakwater parapet walls. The limit state equa- tions are formulated as0
whereWs is the work of the stabilizing forces andWd is the work of the destabilizing forces. In general for a specific design the minimum value of g must be larger than 0 in order to obtain sta- bility. If this is not the case, the design must be changed. The limit state equations are represent- ing static load situations and do not cover earthquake loadings involving inertia forces. The dy- namic effect \u2013 if any \u2013 of wave loadings might be taken into account by applying a dynamic load factor to the maximum load to obtain an equivalent static load.
The waves generate pore pressure gradients in the rubble foundation and in the subsoil. The re- sulting horizontal component of the pore pressure acting on the rupture boundary has to be taken into account and included in the limit state equations. An approximate model for the resulting horizontal pore pressureFHUis shown in Fig. A1.
structure. Moreover, it is assumed that the pressure is identical at all levels in the rubble founda- tion vertically beneath the base plate. Further, it is assumed that the horizontal pore pressure gra- dients are negligible in subsoils consisting of sand or clay due to the very significant pore pres- sure attenuation with depth related to windgenerated waves.
The same model eq A2, might be used also in the case of breakwater parapet wall superstructures if the wave induced pore pressure acts on the base plate. This will be the case if high water and/or wave induced internal set-up raise the phreatic surface in the rubble to levels higher than the un- derside of the base plate.
The limit state equations are restricted to the two-dimensional case and is based on the upper bound theorem of classical plasticity theory where an associated flow rule is assumed. However, this rule is not satisfied for friction materials like sand and quarry stones for which the friction angle and the dilation angle are different. In order to overcome the problem, the following re- duced effective friction angle\u03c6d is used, see Hansen (1979),
In the bearing capacity calculations the rubble mound quarry rock can be regarded fully drained due to the large permeability. The soil strength is then characterized by\u03c6d, defined in eq A3 . The sea bed soil is normally either clay, silt or sand. In the case of clay, silt and fine sand the soil should be considered undrained during wave loadings. Coarse sand might either be drained, par- tially drained or non-drained dependent on the actual soil and loading conditions. For undrained conditions the soil strength is characterized by the undrained shear strength,cu. For drained sub- soils\u03c6d is used as strength parameter. In the following distingtion is made between undrained and drained subsoil conditions as one set of limit state equation is given for each condition.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?