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World Development Report 2010

World Development Report 2010

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Today's enormous development challenges are complicated by the reality of climate change-the two are inextricably linked and together demand immediate attention. Climate change threatens all countries, but particularly developing ones. Understanding what climate change means for development policy is the central aim of the World Development Report 2010.Estimates are that developing countries would bear some 75 to 80 percent of the costs of anticipated damages caused by the changing climate. Developing countries simply cannot afford to ignore climate change, nor can they focus on adaptation alone. So action to reduce vulnerability and lay the groundwork for a transition to low-carbon growth paths is imperative.The 'World Development Report 2010' explores how public policy can change to better help people cope with new or worsened risks, how land and water management must adapt to better protect a threatened natural environment while feeding an expanding and more prosperous population, and how energy systems will need to be transformed. The authors examine how to integrate development realities into climate policy-in international agreements, in instruments to generate carbon finance, and in steps to promote innovation and the diffusion of new technologies. The 'World Development Report 2010' is an urgent call for action, both for developing countries who are striving to ensure policies are adapted to the realities and dangers of a hotter planet, and for high-income countries who need to undertake ambitious mitigation while supporting developing countries efforts. The authors argue that a climate-smart world is within reach if we act now to tackle the substantial inertia in the climate, in infrastructure, and in behaviors and institutions; if we act together to reconcile needed growth with prudent and affordable development choices; and if we act differently by investing in the needed energy revolution and taking the steps required to adapt to a rapidly changing planet.
Today's enormous development challenges are complicated by the reality of climate change-the two are inextricably linked and together demand immediate attention. Climate change threatens all countries, but particularly developing ones. Understanding what climate change means for development policy is the central aim of the World Development Report 2010.Estimates are that developing countries would bear some 75 to 80 percent of the costs of anticipated damages caused by the changing climate. Developing countries simply cannot afford to ignore climate change, nor can they focus on adaptation alone. So action to reduce vulnerability and lay the groundwork for a transition to low-carbon growth paths is imperative.The 'World Development Report 2010' explores how public policy can change to better help people cope with new or worsened risks, how land and water management must adapt to better protect a threatened natural environment while feeding an expanding and more prosperous population, and how energy systems will need to be transformed. The authors examine how to integrate development realities into climate policy-in international agreements, in instruments to generate carbon finance, and in steps to promote innovation and the diffusion of new technologies. The 'World Development Report 2010' is an urgent call for action, both for developing countries who are striving to ensure policies are adapted to the realities and dangers of a hotter planet, and for high-income countries who need to undertake ambitious mitigation while supporting developing countries efforts. The authors argue that a climate-smart world is within reach if we act now to tackle the substantial inertia in the climate, in infrastructure, and in behaviors and institutions; if we act together to reconcile needed growth with prudent and affordable development choices; and if we act differently by investing in the needed energy revolution and taking the steps required to adapt to a rapidly changing planet.

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Publish date: Nov 6, 2009
Added to Scribd: Nov 21, 2011
Copyright:Attribution

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08/06/2014

 
 world development report
Development and Climate Change
+2°
2100200015001000
+1°+
 
Headed toward the danger zone 
Human activity is warming the planet. For the past millennium the Earth’s average temperature varied within a range of less than 0.7°C (shown in green); however, man-made greenhouse gas emissions have resulted in a dramatic increase in the planet’s temperature over the past century (shown in yellow). The projected future increase over the next 100 years (shown in red) due to growing emissions could possibly warm the planet by 5°C relative to the preindustrial period. Such warming has never been experienced by mankind and the resulting physical impacts would severely limit develop-ment. Only through immediate and ambitious actions to curb greenhouse gas emissions may dangerous warming be avoided. The evolution of the planet’s tempera-ture for the past 1,000 years is based on a range of proxy estimates (such as tree ring analysis or ice core sampling) that define the envelope of long-term tem-perature variation. With modern weather observations starting in the nineteenth century, global temperature could be estimated more precisely; thermometer data for the past 150 years or so docu-ment a global temperature increase of nearly 1°C since the preindustrial period. Global climate models that estimate the effect of different future emission sce-narios on Earth’s climate predict a range of possible global temperatures for this century. These estimates show that even the most aggressive mitigation efforts may lead to warming of 2°C or more (a level already considered dangerous), and most models project that less mitigation would lead to warming of 3°C or even up to 5°C and beyond (though with less certainty around these higher amounts of warming). The three globes on the cover are com-posites of data collected by satellites dur-ing the summer months of 1998 through 2007. The colors of the ocean represent chlorophyll concentration, which is a measure of the global distribution of oceanic plant life (phytoplankton). Deep blue colors are areas of low chlorophyll concentration while green, yellow, and red indicate ever higher concentration.  The colors on land show vegetation, with whites, browns, and tans representing minimal vegetative cover and light greens through dark greens indicating ever more dense vegetation. Biological processes on land and in the oceans play a key role in regulating Earth’s temperature and car-bon cycle, and information such as pre-sented in these global maps is essential to manage limited natural resources in an increasingly populous world.
Sources:
Jones, P. D., and M. E. Mann. 2004. “Climate Over Past Millennia.”
Reviews of Geophysics
42(2): doi:10.1029/2003RG000143.Jones, P. D., D. E. Parker, T. J. Osborn, and K. R. Briffa. 2009. “Global and Hemispheric  Temperature Anomalies—Land and Marine Instrumental Records.” In
Trends: A Com- pendium of Data on Global Change.
 Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Depart-ment of Energy, Oak Ridge, TN. doi: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.002 IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change). 2007.
Climate Change 2007: Synthe-sis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Geneva: IPCC.
0–1123451000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100HistoricalObservedFuture
YearTemperature relative to the preindustrial era (°C)
 
2010
 world development report
Development and Climate Change

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