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AMath-Solguide_15a

# AMath-Solguide_15a

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05/09/2014

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New Way Additional Mathematics 3 \u2014 Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
CHAPTER 15
APPLICATIONS OF
DIFFERENTIATION
EXERCISE 15.1
Section 15.1 Tangents and normals
(page 102)
Section A
1.
y
=x3
dx
dy= 3x2
2
\u2212
=
x
dx
dy
= 12
The equation of tangent is
28
++
xy

= 12
i.e. 12x\u2212 y + 16 = 0.
The equation of normal is

28
++
xy
=\u221212
1
i.e.x + 12y + 98 = 0.
2.
xy= 12
xdx
dy+y = 0
dx
dy=xy
\u2212
)
4
,
3
(
dx
dy
=34
\u2212
The equation of tangent is
34
\u2212\u2212
x
y
=34
\u2212
i.e. 4x + 3y \u2013 24 = 0.
The equation of normal is
34
\u2212\u2212
x
y
=
43
i.e. 3x \u2013 4y + 7 = 0.
3.
y= (x \u2013 2) (x + 4)
dx
dy= 2x + 2
1
\u2212
=
x
dx
dy
= 0
The equation of tangent is
19
+
+
x
y
= 0
i.e.y + 9 = 0.
The equation of normal is
x+ 1 = 0.
4.
y=
3
1+
x
dx
dy=
2
)
3
(
1
+
\u2212x
2
\u2212
=
x
dx
dy
=\u22121
The equation of tangent is
21
+\u2212
xy
=\u22121
i.e.x +y + 1 = 0.
The equation of normal is
21
+\u2212
xy
= 1
i.e.x\u2212 y + 3 = 0.
5.
y=
4
1
2+
x
dx
dy=\u2212
2
2
)
4
(
2+
x
x
1
=
x
dx
dy
=\u221225
2
The equation of tangent is
15
1
\u2212
\u2212
x
y
=\u221225
2
i.e. 2x + 25y\u2212 7 = 0.
The equation of normal is
15
1
\u2212
\u2212
x
y
=2
25
i.e. 125x\u2212 10y\u2212 123 = 0.
6.
y=x
dx
dy=
x
2
1
4
=
x
dx
dy
=
4
1
The equation of tangent is
42
\u2212\u2212
xy
=
4
1
i.e.x\u2212 4y + 4 = 0.
The equation of normal is
42
\u2212\u2212
xy
=\u2212 4
i.e. 4x+ y\u2212 18 = 0.
7.
y= 3 tan x
dx
dy= 3 sec2x
4
\u03c0
x
dx
dy
=
= 6
51
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 \u2014 Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
The equation of tangent is
43
\u03c0
xy
\u2212\u2212
= 6
i.e. 6x\u2212 y\u2212
3
2
3+
\u03c0
= 0.
The equation of normal is
43
\u03c0
xy
\u2212\u2212
=\u22126
1
i.e.x + 6y\u22124
\u03c0\u221218 = 0.
8.
y= sin x + cos x
dx
dy= cosx\u2212 sinx
\u03c0
x
dx
dy
=
=\u22121
The equation of tangent is
\u03c0
xy
\u2212+1=\u22121
i.e.x +y + 1\u2212\u03c0 = 0.
The equation of normal is
\u03c0
xy
\u2212+1= 1
i.e.x\u2212 y\u2212 1\u2212\u03c0 = 0.
9.
y=
)
(
sin
2
y
x
\u03c0
+
dx
dy=
)
(
cos
2
1
)
(
cos
2
y
x
\u03c0
y
x
\u03c0
+
\u2212
+
)
2
,
0
(\u03c0
dx
dy
= 0
The equation of tangent isy =
2
\u03c0.
The equation of normal isx = 0.
10.y=
5
3
23
3
1
2
3
+
\u2212
\u2212
x
x
x
dx
dy=x2\u2212 3x\u2212 3
dx
dy= 1
\u2234
x2\u22123 x\u22123 = 1
\u2234
x=4 or\u22121
\u2234
The points are
\ue007\ue008\ue006
\ue001\ue002\ue000\u2212
\ue007\ue008\ue006
\ue001\ue002\ue000\u2212
6
37
,
1
,
3
29
,
4
.
11.
4x + y = 5
Slope =\u22124
y=
1
4\u2212
x
x
dx
dy=
2
)
1
(
4
\u2212
\u2212x
dx
dy=\u22124
\u2234 \u22124 = \u2212
2
)
1
(
4
\u2212
x
\u2234
x= 0, 2
\u2234Points of contact are
)
8
,
2
(
),
0
,
0
(
.
\u2234The equations of tangents are
00
\u2212\u2212
xy
=\u22124 and
28
\u2212\u2212
xy
=\u22124
i.e.
4x +y = 0
and 4x +y\u2212 16 = 0.
12.
y= 2x2+ x\u22121
dx
dy= 4x + 1
1
=
x
dx
dy
= 5
\u2234
The equation of normal is
12
\u2212
\u2212
x
y
=\u22125
1
i.e. 5y +x\u2212 11 = 0.
Itsx -intercept = 11
Itsy-intercept =
5
11
\u2234
The required area =
2
1\u00d7 11 \u00d75
11
=
10
1
12
13.
Slope of the linex + 9y\u2212 5 = 0 is\u221291 .
\u2234
Slope of the normal =\u221291
Hence, slope of the tangent = 9
y= x3\u22123 x
dx
dy= 3x2\u2212 3
dx
dy= 9 (slope of the tangent)
\u2234
9 = 3x2\u2212 3
\u2234
x=\u00b1 2
\u2234
Points of contact are
)
2
,
2
(
,
)
2
,
2
(
\u2212
\u2212
.
52
New Way Additional Mathematics 3 \u2014 Solution Guide (Chapter 15)
\u2234
The equation of normal is
22
\u2212\u2212
xy
=\u221291 or
22
++
xy
=\u221291
i.e.
x+ 9y\u221220 = 0
or
x+ 9y + 20 = 0.
14.
y= x2\u22127
dx
dy= 2x
Let
)
,
(
1
1y
x
be the point of contact.
Then slope of tangent
2x1 =
1
1
3
1
x
y
\u2212
\u2212
....................................(1)
also,y1 =x12\u2212 7.....................................(2)
Solving (1) and (2), we have
x1 = 2, y1 =\u22123
or
x1 = 4, y1= 9
\u2234
The equations of tangents are
23
\u2212+
xy
= 2(2) and
49
\u2212\u2212
xy
= 2(4)
i.e. 4x\u2212 y\u2212 11 = 0
and 8x\u2212 y\u2212 23 = 0.
15.x2+ y2 = 25
dx
dy=\u2212y
x
)
4
,
3
(
dx
dy
=\u221243
3y2\u2212 8x\u2212 18y + 48 = 0
dx
dy=
)
3
(
3
4\u2212
y
)
4
,
3
(
dx
dy
=
34
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000
\u22c5
\ue004\ue005\ue003
\ue001\ue002\ue000\u2212
34
43
=\u22121
\u2234The two tangents are perpendicular.
16.
32
32
y
x+
=
32
a.........................................(1)
y= x......................................................(2)
Solving (1) and (2), we getx =y =\u00b1
2
2
a
32
32
y
x+
=
32
a
dx
dy=\u2212\ue007\ue008\ue006
\ue001\ue002\ue000
xy
3
1
y
x
dx
dy
==\u2212 1
\u2234
The equations of tangents are
2
2
2
2
a
x
a
y
\u2212\u2212
=\u22121 and
2
2
2
2
a
x
a
y
++
=\u22121
i.e.x +y\u22122
a= 0
andx +y +2
a= 0.
17.x= a cos3 t, y= asin3 t
Att =
4
\u03c0,x =y =
2
2
a
dt
dx=\u22123a cos2t sint
dt
dy= 3a sin2t cost
\u2234
dx
dy=
dt
dx
dt
dy
=\u2212tant
4
\u03c0
t
dx
dy
==\u22121
The equation of tangent is
2
2
2
2
a
x
a
y
\u2212\u2212
=\u22121
i.e.
x+ y=2
a.
18.x2\u2212 y2= 9
dx
dy=y
x
)
4
,
5
(
dx
dy
=
4
5
\u2234
The equation of normal is
54
\u2212\u2212
xy
=\u221254
i.e. 4x+ 5y\u2212 40= 0.
53