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New Way Additional Mathematics 3 \u2014 Solution Guide (Chapter 15)

CHAPTER 15

APPLICATIONS OF

DIFFERENTIATION

EXERCISE 15.1

Section 15.1 Tangents and normals

(page 102)

Section A

1.

y

=x3

dx

dy= 3x2

2

\u2212

=

x

dx

dy

= 12

The equation of tangent is

28

++

xy

= 12

i.e. 12x\u2212 y + 16 = 0.

The equation of normal is

28

++

xy

=\u221212

1

i.e.x + 12y + 98 = 0.

2.

xy= 12

xdx

dy+y = 0

dx

dy=xy

\u2212

)

4

,

3

(

dx

dy

=34

\u2212

The equation of tangent is

34

\u2212\u2212

x

y

=34

\u2212

i.e. 4x + 3y \u2013 24 = 0.

The equation of normal is

34

\u2212\u2212

x

y

=

43

i.e. 3x \u2013 4y + 7 = 0.

3.

y= (x \u2013 2) (x + 4)

dx

dy= 2x + 2

1

\u2212

=

x

dx

dy

= 0

The equation of tangent is

19

+

+

x

y

= 0

i.e.y + 9 = 0.

The equation of normal is

x+ 1 = 0.

4.

y=

3

1+

x

dx

dy=

2

)

3

(

1

+

\u2212x

2

\u2212

=

x

dx

dy

=\u22121

The equation of tangent is

21

+\u2212

xy

=\u22121

i.e.x +y + 1 = 0.

The equation of normal is

21

+\u2212

xy

= 1

i.e.x\u2212 y + 3 = 0.

5.

y=

4

1

2+

x

dx

dy=\u2212

2

2

)

4

(

2+

x

x

1

=

x

dx

dy

=\u221225

2

The equation of tangent is

15

1

\u2212

\u2212

x

y

=\u221225

2

i.e. 2x + 25y\u2212 7 = 0.

The equation of normal is

15

1

\u2212

\u2212

x

y

=2

25

i.e. 125x\u2212 10y\u2212 123 = 0.

6.

y=x

dx

dy=

x

2

1

4

=

x

dx

dy

=

4

1

The equation of tangent is

42

\u2212\u2212

xy

=

4

1

i.e.x\u2212 4y + 4 = 0.

The equation of normal is

42

\u2212\u2212

xy

=\u2212 4

i.e. 4x+ y\u2212 18 = 0.

7.

y= 3 tan x

dx

dy= 3 sec2x

4

\u03c0

x

dx

dy

=

= 6

51

New Way Additional Mathematics 3 \u2014 Solution Guide (Chapter 15)

The equation of tangent is

43

\u03c0

xy

\u2212\u2212

= 6

i.e. 6x\u2212 y\u2212

3

2

3+

\u03c0

= 0.

The equation of normal is

43

\u03c0

xy

\u2212\u2212

=\u22126

1

i.e.x + 6y\u22124

\u03c0\u221218 = 0.

8.

y= sin x + cos x

dx

dy= cosx\u2212 sinx

\u03c0

x

dx

dy

=

=\u22121

The equation of tangent is

\u03c0

xy

\u2212+1=\u22121

i.e.x +y + 1\u2212\u03c0 = 0.

The equation of normal is

\u03c0

xy

\u2212+1= 1

i.e.x\u2212 y\u2212 1\u2212\u03c0 = 0.

9.

y=

)

(

sin

2

y

x

\u03c0

+

dx

dy=

)

(

cos

2

1

)

(

cos

2

y

x

\u03c0

y

x

\u03c0

+

\u2212

+

)

2

,

0

(\u03c0

dx

dy

= 0

The equation of tangent isy =

2

\u03c0.

The equation of normal isx = 0.

10.y=

5

3

23

3

1

2

3

+

\u2212

\u2212

x

x

x

dx

dy=x2\u2212 3x\u2212 3

dx

dy= 1

\u2234

x2\u22123 x\u22123 = 1

\u2234

x=4 or\u22121

\u2234

The points are

\ue007\ue008\ue006

\ue001\ue002\ue000\u2212

\ue007\ue008\ue006

\ue001\ue002\ue000\u2212

6

37

,

1

,

3

29

,

4

.

11.

4x + y = 5

Slope =\u22124

y=

1

4\u2212

x

x

dx

dy=

2

)

1

(

4

\u2212

\u2212x

dx

dy=\u22124

\u2234 \u22124 = \u2212

2

)

1

(

4

\u2212

x

\u2234

x= 0, 2

\u2234Points of contact are

)

8

,

2

(

),

0

,

0

(

.

\u2234The equations of tangents are

00

\u2212\u2212

xy

=\u22124 and

28

\u2212\u2212

xy

=\u22124

i.e.

4x +y = 0

and 4x +y\u2212 16 = 0.

12.

y= 2x2+ x\u22121

dx

dy= 4x + 1

1

=

x

dx

dy

= 5

\u2234

The equation of normal is

12

\u2212

\u2212

x

y

=\u22125

1

i.e. 5y +x\u2212 11 = 0.

Itsx -intercept = 11

Itsy-intercept =

5

11

\u2234

The required area =

2

1\u00d7 11 \u00d75

11

=

10

1

12

13.

Slope of the linex + 9y\u2212 5 = 0 is\u221291 .

\u2234

Slope of the normal =\u221291

Hence, slope of the tangent = 9

y= x3\u22123 x

dx

dy= 3x2\u2212 3

dx

dy= 9 (slope of the tangent)

\u2234

9 = 3x2\u2212 3

\u2234

x=\u00b1 2

\u2234

Points of contact are

)

2

,

2

(

,

)

2

,

2

(

\u2212

\u2212

.

52

New Way Additional Mathematics 3 \u2014 Solution Guide (Chapter 15)

\u2234

The equation of normal is

22

\u2212\u2212

xy

=\u221291 or

22

++

xy

=\u221291

i.e.

x+ 9y\u221220 = 0

or

x+ 9y + 20 = 0.

14.

y= x2\u22127

dx

dy= 2x

Let

)

,

(

1

1y

x

be the point of contact.

Then slope of tangent

2x1 =

1

1

3

1

x

y

\u2212

\u2212

....................................(1)

also,y1 =x12\u2212 7.....................................(2)

Solving (1) and (2), we have

x1 = 2, y1 =\u22123

or

x1 = 4, y1= 9

\u2234

The equations of tangents are

23

\u2212+

xy

= 2(2) and

49

\u2212\u2212

xy

= 2(4)

i.e. 4x\u2212 y\u2212 11 = 0

and 8x\u2212 y\u2212 23 = 0.

15.x2+ y2 = 25

dx

dy=\u2212y

x

)

4

,

3

(

dx

dy

=\u221243

3y2\u2212 8x\u2212 18y + 48 = 0

dx

dy=

)

3

(

3

4\u2212

y

)

4

,

3

(

dx

dy

=

34

\ue004\ue005\ue003

\ue001\ue002\ue000

\u22c5

\ue004\ue005\ue003

\ue001\ue002\ue000\u2212

34

43

=\u22121

\u2234The two tangents are perpendicular.

16.

32

32

y

x+

=

32

a.........................................(1)

y= x......................................................(2)

Solving (1) and (2), we getx =y =\u00b1

2

2

a

32

32

y

x+

=

32

a

dx

dy=\u2212\ue007\ue008\ue006

\ue001\ue002\ue000

xy

3

1

y

x

dx

dy

==\u2212 1

\u2234

The equations of tangents are

2

2

2

2

a

x

a

y

\u2212\u2212

=\u22121 and

2

2

2

2

a

x

a

y

++

=\u22121

i.e.x +y\u22122

a= 0

andx +y +2

a= 0.

17.x= a cos3 t, y= asin3 t

Att =

4

\u03c0,x =y =

2

2

a

dt

dx=\u22123a cos2t sint

dt

dy= 3a sin2t cost

\u2234

dx

dy=

dt

dx

dt

dy

=\u2212tant

4

\u03c0

t

dx

dy

==\u22121

The equation of tangent is

2

2

2

2

a

x

a

y

\u2212\u2212

=\u22121

i.e.

x+ y=2

a.

18.x2\u2212 y2= 9

dx

dy=y

x

)

4

,

5

(

dx

dy

=

4

5

\u2234

The equation of normal is

54

\u2212\u2212

xy

=\u221254

i.e. 4x+ 5y\u2212 40= 0.

53