Answer any 4 out of 5 questions in this paper.
Begin each question on a
of writing paper.
Lattice energies are often used as a measure of the energetic stability of ioniccompounds. Usually ionic compounds with the same crystal structure can becompared based on the lattice energy value.Lattice energies need to be determined experimentally using thermochemicaldata. However based on electrostatic considerations (i.e. attraction andrepulsion of ions), theoretical values of the lattice energies can be calculatedusing equations such as the Kapustinskii equation:
r r z z H
is the number of ions in the empirical formula
,is the charge of the cation and anion respectively
is the ionic radius (in nm) of the cation and anion respectivelyThe table below shows the numerical values of lattice energies for a series ofmagnesium and other related compounds.
MgOExperimentalvalue / kJ mol
- 853 - 2526 - 2440 - 2327 - 3933
Define, with the aid of an equation, the lattice energy of magnesiumoxide.
By quoting appropriate data from the
, explain why thelattice energies of the magnesium halides decrease from MgC
By using appropriate data from the
, calculate thetheoretical lattice energy of magnesium chloride.
The lithium and magnesium ion have similar ionic radii. Based on thisassumption, use the value calculated in
to estimate thetheoretical lattice energy of lithium chloride.
Explain the differences between the theoretical and experimentalvalues for lithium chloride and magnesium chloride respectively, andcomment whether the assumption made in
is a valid one.