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H2 Chem Summary of Group II

H2 Chem Summary of Group II

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Published by onnoez
H2 Chem Summary of Group II
H2 Chem Summary of Group II

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Published by: onnoez on Nov 21, 2011
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04/04/2013

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©MJC 20111
Summary of Periodic Table – Group II
Properties of Group II Element 
Group II element
Be Mg Ca Sr Ba
Atomic No.
4 12 20 38 56
Atomic Radius Down the group
Nuclear charge
increases.
 
Significant increase in
screening effect
 
outweighs
 
increase in nuclear charge 
 
 
Effective nuclear charge
 
decreases
down the group
Weaker electrostatic attraction between nucleus and valence electrons
Valence electrons are
further away
from the nucleus
 
Smaller  
amount of energy needed to remove the valence electron
(for1st IE only)
 
1
st 
I.E.Melting Point 
Group II metals have
giant metallic lattice structure
 
Down a group, atomic radius
increases
 
 
Weaker electrostatic attraction
between the cations and sea of delocalised electrons
Metallic bond strength
decreases
 
Chemical Reactivity 
 Gp II metals arevery goodreducing agents
 
Reducing power & chemical reactivity increases down the group
Down the group,
the
atomic radiusincreases
 
it becomes
easier to lose the 2 outermost electrons
(oxidation more likely to occur)(
OR the ionisation energy decreases thus valence electrons are more easily lost)
 
 
E
is negative and decreases
 M
2+
+ 2e M
E
< 0
e.g Mg
2+
+ 2e Mg
E
= -2.38V
Ca
2+
+ 2e Ca
E
= -2.87V
 
Reactivity
of Group II elements
increases
. (e.g. Ca is more reactive than Mg)
 
©MJC 20112
Group II element
Be Mg Ca Sr Ba
Reaction withwater 
 
No reaction
with
cold water or steam
 
Reacts veryslightly
with
coldwater 
It
reacts rapidlywithsteam
to form
oxide 
MgO
dissolvespartially
in water togive a
weaklyalkaline solution
Mg(s) + H
2
O(g)
 MgO(s) + H
2
(g)MgO(s) + H
2
O(l)Mg(OH)
2
(aq)
Reacts vigorouslywith
cold water 
togive
sparinglysoluble
Ca(OH)
2
 Ca(s) + 2H
2
O(l)
Ca(OH)
2
(s) + H
2
(g)
Reactsvigorously with
cold water 
togive
sparinglysoluble
Sr(OH)
2
 Sr(s) + 2H
2
O(l)
 Sr(OH)
2
(s)+ H
2
(g)
Reacts vigorouslywith
cold water 
togive
soluble
 Ba(OH)
2
 Ba(s) + 2H
2
O(l)
 Ba(OH)
2
(aq) + H
2
(g)
Reaction withOxygen
 
All Group II metals burn with a
bright flame
to
formbasicoxides.
(exception: BeO which is amphoteric)2Ca(s) + O
2
(g)
2CaO(s)2Sr(s) + O
2
(g)
2SrO(s)2Ba(s) + O
2
(g)
2BaO(s)
 
©MJC 20113
Reaction of Group II Metal Oxides with Water Group II Oxides BeO MgO CaO SrO BaONature of oxide
Amphoteric (ionic bond withcovalent character since Be
 
2+
hashigh charge density)
(reacts with both acids and bases)BeO + 2HCl
BeCl
2
+ H
2
OBeO + 2OH
-
H
2
O
Be(OH)
42-
 
Basic (ionic bond)
(reacts with acids to give salt and water)
MO + 2HCl
MCl
2
+ H
2
OM = Gp II metals
 
Reaction withwater 
Insoluble in water 
Slightly solublein water (pH
9)
MgO + H
2
OMg(OH)
2
 Dissolve in water to give an
alkaline solution (pH 10 – 13)
CaO(s) + H
2
O(l)
Ca(OH)
2
(aq)SrO(s) + H
2
O(l)
Sr(OH)
2
(aq)BaO(s) + H
2
O(l)
Ba(OH)
2
(aq)
Thermal Stability of Carbonates, Nitrates and HydroxidesThermal stability
of Group II salts
increases
down the groupor 
Thermal decomposition temperature
of Group II salts
increases
down the group
Down the group,
size of cation
increases
(while charge remains unchanged)
charge density of the cation
decreases
 
polarising power of the cation
decreases
 
cation is
less able to distort electron cloud
of an anion
thermal stability of compound
increases.
 
M(NO
3
)
2
(s)
MO(s) + 2NO
2
(g) + ½ O
2
(g)
where
M
refers to any Group II metal
 
(brown gas)
MCO
3
(s)
 
 
MO(s) + CO
2
(g)
 
M(OH)
2
(s)
MO(s) + H
2
O(g)MgO
is used as
refractory lining for high temperature furnaces
because of its
high melting point
.
CaO (quicklime) or CaCO
3
(limestone)
is used for 
liming
(increased soil pH).

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