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H2 Chem Summary of Group VII

H2 Chem Summary of Group VII

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Published by onnoez
H2 Chem Summary of Group VII
H2 Chem Summary of Group VII

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Published by: onnoez on Nov 21, 2011
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07/08/2015

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 ©MJC 20111
Summary of Periodic Table – Group VII
Halogens (X 
 ) 
Group VII element Cl
2
Br
2
I
2
 
Bonding
Covalent bonding (X-X) within the molecule and weak van der waals’ between the molecules (X
2
……… X
2
)
Structure
Simple molecular structure
Colour & physical state(at r.t.p)
Greenish-yellow gas Brown liquid Black solid
Colour in gaseous state
Greenish-yellow gas Reddish brown gas Violet fumes
Colour in Organic Solvent(e.g. CCl
4
)
Pale yellow Orange Violet
Volatility or Boiling point
Volatility
 
(or
b.p
 
) from Cl
2
to I
2
 Strength of VDW’s forces
due to increase in size of electron cloud
 
greater extent of distortion
of the electron cloud.
 
 
More energy
is required to overcome these
stronger
van der Waals’ forces.
Oxidising strength
X
2
+ 2e
2X
-
E
 
The element X
2
becomes less reactive down the group since
electron affinity
of the halogen atom
decreases
 
Thus,oxidising power
 
from Cl
2
to I
2
as shown by
 
decreasing
E
 
values (less likely for X
2
to reduce to X
-
).
Displacement reaction
Cl
2
displaces Br
2
from Br
-
and displaces I
2
from I
-
.Br
2
displaces I
2
from I
-
but I
2
cannot displace Cl
-
and Br
-
.
Reaction with thiosulphate(S
2
O
32-
)
4X
2
(aq) + S
2
O
32-
(aq) + 5H
2
O(l)
2SO
42-
(aq) + 10H
+
(aq) + 8X
-
(aq)Oxidation number of S
from +2 to +6I
2
(aq) +2S
2
O
32-
(aq)
2I
-
(aq) + S
4
O
62-
 Oxidation number of S
from +2 to +3
 
Reaction withH
2
gas
Cl
2
reacts vigorously in
presence of 
 
sunlight 
 
or u.v. light;
Cl
2
(g) + H
2
(g)

2 HCl (g) 
Br
2
reacts at 300
o
C in thepresence of
Pt catalyst
 
Br
2
(g) + H
2
(g)

2 HBr (g) 
I
2
 
reacts reversibly 
at 400
o
C in thepresence of Pt catalyst.
I
2
(g) + H
2
(g)
2 HI (g) 
Reaction with NaOH
At low temperature  
Cl
2
(g) + 2NaOH(aq)

 
NaCl (aq) + NaClO(aq) + H
2
O(l)Cl
2
undergoes dispropor
 
tionation to formCl- and ClO
-
.
At high temperature 
Cl
2
(g) + 6NaOH(aq)

 
5NaCl (aq) + NaClO
3
(aq) + 3H
2
O(l)At high T, ClO
-
undergoes further
 
disproportionation to form Cl- and ClO
3-
.At low and high temperatureBr
2
(g) + 6NaOH(aq)

 
5NaBr (aq) + NaBrO
3
(aq) + 3H
2
O(l)At low and high temperatureI
2
(g) + 6NaOH(aq)

 
5NaI (aq) + NaIO
3
(aq) + 3H
2
O(l)
 
 ©MJC 20112 
Hydrogen halides (HX) 
Hydrogen halides HCl HBr HIStructure andbondingSimple molecular structure
with
permanent dipole-permanent dipole
interactions between the molecules.
Melting point/boiling pointM.p. or b.p.
down the group
Strength of
VDW’s forces
 
due to increase in
size of electron cloud 
 
 
greater extent of distortion 
of the electron cloud.
 
 
More energy
is required to overcome these
stronger
 
van der Waals’ forces
between
HX molecules.
 
Thermal stability
 
2HX(g)
H
2
(g) + X
2
(g)
 Thermal stability
 
from HCl to HI since
 
H-X bond energy
 
(i.e. HX bonds become weaker).
Down the group,
Atomic radius of halogen
 
increases
 
Bond length of H-X
increases
 
Bond strength of H-X
 decreases
 
 
Bond energy 
of
H–X decreases
 
Acidity ofHydrogenHalides
 
 
HX(aq)
H
+
(aq) + X
-
(aq)
Acid strength :
HI > HBr > HC
 Down the group,
 
Atomic radius
of halogen
increases
 
 
bond length
of H–X bond
increases
 
 
bond energy
of H–X bond
decreases
 
weaker H–X bond breaks more easily
 
H
+
is
more readily released 
 
hydrogen halide becomes a stronger acid.

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