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thi truong chung khoan

thi truong chung khoan



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Published by api-3855068

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Published by: api-3855068 on Oct 19, 2008
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Th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n l\u00e0 g\u00ec?

Th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n: l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng m\u00e0 \u1edf n\u01a1i \u0111\u00f3 ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta mua b\u00e1n, chuy\u1ec3n nh\u01b0\u1ee3ng, trao \u0111\u1ed5i ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n nh\u1eb1m m\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch ki\u1ebfm l\u1eddi. Tuy nhi\u00ean, \u0111\u00f3 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u00e0 TTCK t\u1eadp trung ho\u1eb7c phi t\u1eadp trung.

T\u00ednh t\u1eadp trung \u1edf \u0111\u00e2y l\u00e0 mu\u1ed1n n\u00f3i \u0111\u1ebfn vi\u1ec7c c\u00e1c giao d\u1ecbch \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c t\u1eadp trung
theo m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ecba \u0111i\u1ec3m v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t.H\u00ecnh th\u00e1i \u0111i\u1ec3n h\u00ecnh c\u1ee7a TTCK t\u1eadp trung l\u00e0 S\u1edf giao d\u1ecbch ch\u1ee9ng
kho\u00e1n ( Stock exchange). T\u1ea1i S\u1edf giao d\u1ecbch ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n (SGDCK), c\u00e1c giao d\u1ecbch \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c
t\u1eadp trung t\u1ea1i m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ecba \u0111i\u1ec3m; c\u00e1c l\u1ec7nh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chuy\u1ec3n t\u1edbi s\u00e0n giao d\u1ecbch v\u00e0 tham gia v\u00e0o qu\u00e1
tr\u00ecnh gh\u00e9p l\u1ec7nh \u0111\u1ec3 h\u00ecnh th\u00e0nh n\u00ean gi\u00e1 giao d\u1ecbch.

TTCK phi t\u1eadp trung c\u00f2n g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng OTC (over the counter). Tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng OTC,
c\u00e1c giao d\u1ecbch \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ti\u1ebfn h\u00e0nh qua m\u1ea1ng l\u01b0\u1edbi c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n ph\u00e2n t\u00e1n tr\u00ean kh\u1eafp
qu\u1ed1c gia v\u00e0 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u1ed1i v\u1edbi nhau b\u1eb1ng m\u1ea1ng \u0111i\u1ec7n t\u1eed. Gi\u00e1 tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng n\u00e0y \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u00ecnh
th\u00e0nh theo ph\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u1ee9c tho\u1ea3 thu\u1eadn.

Ch\u1ee9c n\u0103ng c\u1ee7a TTCK
1. Huy \u0111\u1ed9ng v\u1ed1n \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 cho n\u1ec1n kinh t\u1ebf:

Khi c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 mua ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n do c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh, s\u1ed1 ti\u1ec1n nh\u00e0n r\u1ed7i c\u1ee7a h\u1ecd
\u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u01b0a v\u00e0o ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t kinh doanh v\u00e0 qua \u0111\u00f3 g\u00f3p ph\u1ea7n m\u1edf r\u1ed9ng s\u1ea3n xu\u1ea5t x\u00e3
h\u1ed9i. Th\u00f4ng qua TTCK, Ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 v\u00e0 ch\u00ednh quy\u1ec1n \u1edf c\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecba ph\u01b0\u01a1ng c\u0169ng huy \u0111\u1ed9ng \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c
c\u00e1c ngu\u1ed3n v\u1ed1n cho m\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng v\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n h\u1ea1 t\u1ea7ng kinh t\u1ebf, ph\u1ee5c v\u1ee5 c\u00e1c
nhu c\u1ea7u chung c\u1ee7a x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i.

2. Cung c\u1ea5p m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 cho c\u00f4ng ch\u00fang:

TTCK cung c\u1ea5p cho c\u00f4ng ch\u00fang m\u1ed9t m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 l\u00e0nh m\u1ea1nh v\u1edbi c\u00e1c c\u01a1 h\u1ed9i l\u1ef1a
ch\u1ecdn phong ph\u00fa. C\u00e1c lo\u1ea1i ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng r\u1ea5t kh\u00e1c nhau v\u1ec1 t\u00ednh ch\u1ea5t, th\u1eddi
h\u1ea1n v\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9 r\u1ee7i ro, cho ph\u00e9p c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 l\u1ef1a ch\u1ecdn lo\u1ea1i h\u00e0ng ho\u00e1 ph\u00f9 h\u1ee3p v\u1edbi kh\u1ea3
n\u0103ng, m\u1ee5c ti\u00eau v\u00e0 s\u1edf th\u00edch c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh.

3. T\u1ea1o t\u00ednh thanh kho\u1ea3n cho c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n:

Nh\u1edd c\u00f3 TTCK c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 chuy\u1ec3n \u0111\u1ed5i c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n h\u1ecd s\u1edf h\u1eefu th\u00e0nh ti\u1ec1n m\u1eb7t ho\u1eb7c c\u00e1c lo\u1ea1i ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n kh\u00e1c khi h\u1ecd mu\u1ed1n. Kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng thanh kho\u1ea3n l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t trong nh\u1eefng \u0111\u1eb7c t\u00ednh h\u1ea5p d\u1eabn c\u1ee7a ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0. \u0110\u00e2y l\u00e0 y\u1ebfu t\u1ed1 cho th\u1ea5y t\u00ednh linh ho\u1ea1t, an to\u00e0n c\u1ee7a v\u1ed1n \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0. TTCK ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u00e0ng n\u0103ng \u0111\u1ed9ng v\u00e0 c\u00f3 hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 th\u00ec t\u00ednh thanh kho\u1ea3n c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n giao d\u1ecbch tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng c\u00e0ng cao.

4. \u0110\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a doanh nghi\u1ec7p:

kho\u00e1n l\u00e0

Th\u00f4ng qua ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n, ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c doanh nghi\u1ec7p \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch t\u1ed5ng
h\u1ee3p v\u00e0 ch\u00ednh x\u00e1c, gi\u00fap cho vi\u1ec7c \u0111\u00e1nh gi\u00e1 v\u00e0 so s\u00e1nh ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a doanh nghi\u1ec7p \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c
nhanh ch\u00f3ng v\u00e0 thu\u1eadn ti\u1ec7n, t\u1eeb \u0111\u00f3 c\u0169ng t\u1ea1o ra m\u1ed9t m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng c\u1ea1nh tranh l\u00e0nh m\u1ea1nh nh\u1eb1m
n\u00e2ng cao hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng v\u1ed1n, k\u00edch th\u00edch \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7 m\u1edbi, c\u1ea3i ti\u1ebfn s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m.

5. T\u1ea1o m\u00f4i tr\u01b0\u1eddng gi\u00fap Ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n c\u00e1c ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch kinh t\u1ebf v\u0129 m\u00f4:

C\u00e1c ch\u1ec9 b\u00e1o c\u1ee7a TTCK ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh \u0111\u1ed9ng th\u00e1i c\u1ee7a n\u1ec1n kinh t\u1ebf m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch nh\u1ea1y b\u00e9n v\u00e0 ch\u00ednh
x\u00e1c. Gi\u00e1 c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n t\u0103ng l\u00ean cho th\u1ea5y \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 \u0111ang m\u1edf r\u1ed9ng, n\u1ec1n kinh t\u1ebf t\u0103ng
tr\u01b0\u1edfng; ng\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u1ea1i gi\u00e1 ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n gi\u1ea3m s\u1ebd cho th\u1ea5y c\u00e1c d\u1ea5u hi\u1ec7u ti\u00eau c\u1ef1c c\u1ee7a n\u1ec1n kinh
t\u1ebf. V\u00ec th\u1ebf, TTCK \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 phong v\u0169 bi\u1ec3u c\u1ee7a n\u1ec1n kinh t\u1ebf v\u00e0 l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 quan tr\u1ecdng
gi\u00fap Ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n c\u00e1c ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch kinh t\u1ebf v\u0129 m\u00f4. Th\u00f4ng qua TTCK, Ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 c\u00f3
th\u1ec3 mua v\u00e0 b\u00e1n tr\u00e1i phi\u1ebfu Ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 \u0111\u1ec3 t\u1ea1o ra ngu\u1ed3n thu b\u00f9 \u0111\u1eafp th\u00e2m h\u1ee5t ng\u00e2n s\u00e1ch v\u00e0
qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd l\u1ea1m ph\u00e1t. Ngo\u00e0i ra, Ch\u00ednh ph\u1ee7 c\u0169ng c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 ch\u00ednh s\u00e1ch, bi\u1ec7n ph\u00e1p
t\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed9ng v\u00e0o TTCK nh\u1eb1m \u0111\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 \u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o cho s\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u00e2n \u0111\u1ed1i c\u1ee7a n\u1ec1n
kinh t\u1ebf.

C\u01a1 c\u1ea5u Th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng Ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n:

X\u00e9t v\u1ec1 s\u1ef1 l\u01b0u th\u00f4ng c\u1ee7a ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng, TTCK c\u00f3 hai lo\u1ea1i:
1. Th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng s\u01a1 c\u1ea5p:
L\u00e0 th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng mua b\u00e1n c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n m\u1edbi ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh. Tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng n\u00e0y, v\u1ed1n t\u1eeb nh\u00e0

\u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 s\u1ebd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c chuy\u1ec3n sang nh\u00e0 ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh th\u00f4ng qua vi\u1ec7c nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 mua c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9ng

kho\u00e1n m\u1edbi ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh.
2. Th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1ee9 c\u1ea5p:
L\u00e0 n\u01a1i giao d\u1ecbch c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng s\u01a1 c\u1ea5p.Th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng

th\u1ee9 c\u1ea5p \u0111\u1ea3m b\u1ea3o t\u00ednh thanh kho\u1ea3n cho c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n \u0111\u00e3 ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh.
C\u00e1c nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng c\u1ee7a TTCK:
1. Nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc c\u1ea1nh tranh:

Theo nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc n\u00e0y, gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 tr\u00ean TTCK ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh quan h\u1ec7 cung c\u1ea7u v\u1ec1 ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n v\u00e0
th\u1ec3 hi\u1ec7n t\u01b0\u01a1ng quan c\u1ea1nh tranh gi\u1eefa c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty. Tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng s\u01a1 c\u1ea5p, c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 ph\u00e1t
h\u00e0nh c\u1ea1nh tranh v\u1edbi nhau \u0111\u1ec3 b\u00e1n ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh cho c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0, c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u
t\u01b0 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u1ef1 do l\u1ef1a ch\u1ecdn c\u00e1c ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n theo c\u00e1c m\u1ee5c ti\u00eau c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh. Tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1ee9
c\u1ea5p, c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 c\u0169ng c\u1ea1nh tranh t\u1ef1 do \u0111\u1ec3 t\u00ecm ki\u1ebfm cho m\u00ecnh m\u1ed9t l\u1ee3i nhu\u1eadn cao nh\u1ea5t,
v\u00e0 gi\u00e1 c\u1ea3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u00ecnh th\u00e0nh theo ph\u01b0\u01a1ng th\u1ee9c \u0111\u1ea5u gi\u00e1.

2. Nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc c\u00f4ng b\u1eb1ng:

C\u00f4ng b\u1eb1ng c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 m\u1ecdi ng\u01b0\u1eddi tham gia th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng \u0111\u1ec1u ph\u1ea3i tu\u00e2n th\u1ee7 nh\u1eefng qui \u0111\u1ecbnh chung, \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u00ecnh \u0111\u1eb3ng trong vi\u1ec7c chia s\u1ebb th\u00f4ng tin v\u00e0 trong vi\u1ec7c g\u00e1nh ch\u1ecbu c\u00e1c h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c x\u1eed ph\u1ea1t n\u1ebfu vi ph\u1ea1m v\u00e0o nh\u1eefng qui \u0111\u1ecbnh \u0111\u00f3.

3. Nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc c\u00f4ng khai:

Ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n l\u00e0 lo\u1ea1i h\u00e0ng ho\u00e1 tr\u1eebu t\u01b0\u1ee3ng n\u00ean TTCK ph\u1ea3i \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c x\u00e2y d\u1ef1ng tr\u00ean c\u01a1 s\u1edf h\u1ec7
th\u1ed1ng c\u00f4ng b\u1ed1 th\u00f4ng tin t\u1ed1t. Theo lu\u1eadt \u0111\u1ecbnh, c\u00e1c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a v\u1ee5 ph\u1ea3i cung
c\u1ea5p th\u00f4ng tin \u0111\u1ea7y \u0111\u1ee7 theo ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ed9 th\u01b0\u1eddng xuy\u00ean v\u00e0 \u0111\u1ed9t xu\u1ea5t th\u00f4ng qua c\u00e1c ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ti\u1ec7n
th\u00f4ng tin \u0111\u1ea1i ch\u00fang, S\u1edf giao d\u1ecbch, c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n v\u00e0 c\u00e1c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c c\u00f3 li\u00ean quan.

4. Nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc trung gian:

Nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc n\u00e0y c\u00f3 ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 c\u00e1c giao d\u1ecbch ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n th\u00f4ng qua t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c trung gian l\u00e0 c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n. Tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng s\u01a1 c\u1ea5p, c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 kh\u00f4ng mua tr\u1ef1c ti\u1ebfp c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh m\u00e0 mua t\u1eeb c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 b\u1ea3o l\u00e3nh ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh. Tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng th\u1ee9 c\u1ea5p, th\u00f4ng qua c\u00e1c nghi\u1ec7p v\u1ee5 m\u00f4i gi\u1edbi, kinh doanh, c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n mua, b\u00e1n ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n gi\u00fap c\u00e1c kh\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng, ho\u1eb7c k\u1ebft n\u1ed1i c\u00e1c kh\u00e1ch h\u00e0ng v\u1edbi nhau qua vi\u1ec7c th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n c\u00e1c giao d\u1ecbch mua b\u00e1n ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n tr\u00ean t\u00e0i kho\u1ea3n c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh.

5. Nguy\u00ean t\u1eafc t\u1eadp trung:
C\u00e1c giao d\u1ecbch ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n ch\u1ec9 di\u1ec5n ra tr\u00ean s\u1edf giao d\u1ecbch v\u00e0 tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng OTC d\u01b0\u1edbi s\u1ef1
ki\u1ec3m tra gi\u00e1m s\u00e1t c\u1ee7a c\u01a1 quan qu\u1ea3n l\u00fd nh\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc v\u00e0 c\u00e1c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c t\u1ef1 qu\u1ea3n.
C\u00e1c th\u00e0nh ph\u1ea7n tham gia TTCK:
1. Nh\u00e0 ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh:
L\u00e0 c\u00e1c t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n huy \u0111\u1ed9ng v\u1ed1n th\u00f4ng qua TTCK d\u01b0\u1edbi h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c ph\u00e1t h\u00e0nh c\u00e1c
ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n.
2. Nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0:

L\u00e0 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi th\u1ef1c s\u1ef1 mua v\u00e0 b\u00e1n ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n tr\u00ean TTCK. Nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c
chia th\u00e0nh 2 lo\u1ea1i:
- Nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 c\u00e1 nh\u00e2n: l\u00e0 nh\u1eefng ng\u01b0\u1eddi c\u00f3 v\u1ed1n nh\u00e0n r\u1ed7i t\u1ea1m th\u1eddi, tham gia mua b\u00e1n tr\u00ean
TTCK v\u1edbi m\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch ki\u1ebfm l\u1eddi.
- Nh\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 c\u00f3 t\u1ed5 ch\u1ee9c: l\u00e0 c\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh ch\u1ebf \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0 th\u01b0\u1eddng xuy\u00ean mua b\u00e1n ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n v\u1edbi
s\u1ed1 l\u01b0\u1ee3ng l\u1edbn tr\u00ean th\u1ecb tr\u01b0\u1eddng.
C\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh ch\u1ebf n\u00e0y c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i d\u01b0\u1edbi c\u00e1c h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c sau: c\u00f4ng ty \u0111\u1ea7u t\u01b0, c\u00f4ng ty b\u1ea3o hi\u1ec3m,
Qu\u1ef9 l\u01b0\u01a1ng h\u01b0u, c\u00f4ng ty t\u00e0i ch\u00ednh, ng\u00e2n h\u00e0ng th\u01b0\u01a1ng m\u1ea1i v\u00e0 c\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n.

3. C\u00e1c c\u00f4ng ty ch\u1ee9ng kho\u00e1n:

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