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Published by api-3846385
Mấy nét về cội nguồn - Văn minh văn hóa Việt Nam
» Tác giả: Cao Thế Dung
Mấy nét về cội nguồn - Văn minh văn hóa Việt Nam
» Tác giả: Cao Thế Dung

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Published by: api-3846385 on Oct 19, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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M\u1ea5y n\u00e9t v\u1ec1 c\u1ed9i ngu\u1ed3n - V\u0103n minh v\u0103n
h\u00f3a Vi\u1ec7t Nam

\u00bb T\u00e1c gi\u1ea3: Cao Th\u1ebf Dung
\u00bb D\u1ecbch gi\u1ea3:
\u00bb Th\u1ec3 l\u1ecdai: B\u00e0i vi\u1ebft
\u00bb S\u1ed1 l\u1ea7n xem: 1213

1. M\u1ea5y n\u00e9t v\u1ec1 c\u1ed9i ngu\u1ed3n - V\u0103n minh v\u0103n h\u00f3a Vi\u1ec7t

N\u1eeda \u0111\u1ea7u thi\u00ean ni\u00ean k\u1ef7 th\u1ee9 I tr\u01b0\u1edbc c\u00f4ng nguy\u00ean, ngh\u0129a l\u00e0
nh\u00e0 T\u1ea7n ch\u01b0a n\u1ed5i d\u1eady, tr\u01b0\u1edbc cu\u1ed9c chinh ph\u1ea1t ph\u01b0\u01a1ng
Nam c\u1ee7a T\u1ea7n Th\u1ee7y Ho\u00e0ng, mi\u1ec1n B\u00e1ch Vi\u1ec7t ph\u01b0\u01a1ng nam
ch\u01b0a ti\u1ebfp x\u00fac v\u1edbi ng\u01b0\u1eddi trung nguy\u00ean Hoa H\u1ea1, Trung
Qu\u1ed1c, "v\u00e0o th\u1eddi k\u1ef3 n\u00e0y trong s\u1ef1 nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c s\u0129
phu ph\u01b0\u01a1ng B\u1eafc, h\u1ecd m\u1edbi ch\u1ec9 bi\u1ebft \u0111\u1ebfn n\u01b0\u1edbc Vi\u1ec7t c\u1ee7a C\u00e2u
Ti\u1ec5n. Sau n\u00e0y trong qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh ti\u1ebfp x\u00fac, b\u1eb1ng nhi\u1ec1u con
\u0111\u01b0\u1eddng kh\u00e1c nhau, h\u1ecd d\u1ea7n d\u1ea7n bi\u1ebft th\u00eam c\u00e1c n\u01b0\u1edbc kh\u00e1c
nhau \u1edf khu v\u1ef1c n\u00e0y m\u00e0 tr\u01b0\u1edbc ti\u00ean l\u00e0 \u00d0\u00f4ng \u00c2u (l\u1ea5y t\u00ean
con s\u00f4ng \u00c2u m\u00e0 d\u00e2n n\u01b0\u1edbc n\u00e0y c\u01b0 tr\u00fa ven b\u1edd), l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t
n\u01b0\u1edbc kh\u00e1 h\u00f9ng m\u1ea1nh cho n\u00ean ng\u01b0\u1eddi Trung Nguy\u00ean b\u1ea5y
gi\u1edd th\u01b0\u1eddng d\u00f9ng t\u1eeb \u00c2u \u0111\u1ec3 ch\u1ec9 c\u00e1c nh\u00f3m ng\u01b0\u1eddi Vi\u1ec7t s\u1ed1ng
\u1edf L\u0129nh Nam..." (\u00d0\u1eb7ng Kim Ng\u1ecdc, "V\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 Vi\u1ec7t Nam trong
l\u1ecbch s\u1eed c\u1ed5 \u0111\u1ea1i v\u00e0 trong s\u1eed s\u00e1ch Trung Qu\u1ed1c v\u00e0 Vi\u1ec7t Nam",
Nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u l\u1ecbch s\u1eed s\u1ed1 6 (231), 1986 tr. 51).

C\u0103n c\u1ee9 t\u1eeb c\u00e1c ngu\u1ed3n t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb trong c\u1ed5 th\u01b0 Trung
Qu\u1ed1c, t\u00e1c gi\u1ea3 \u00d0\u1eb7ng Kim Ng\u1ecdc trong b\u00e0i kh\u1ea3o lu\u1eadn k\u1ec3
tr\u00ean, kh\u1ea3o c\u1ee9u t\u1eeb c\u00e1c b\u1ed9 "Th\u01b0\u1ee3ng Th\u01b0", "Chu L\u1ec5" v\u00e0
"Qu\u1ed1c Ng\u1eef" v\u1ec1 c\u00e1c ch\u01b0 h\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 Chu. V\u00e0o th\u1eddi k\u1ef3
n\u00e0y, \u00c2u Vi\u1ec7t hay \u00c2u Th\u1ee5c v\u1eabn c\u00f2n t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i \u1edf mi\u1ec1n Trung
(t\u1ec9nh T\u1ee9 Xuy\u00ean ng\u00e0y nay), m\u1ed9t v\u00f9ng n\u00fai non ch\u1eadp ch\u00f9ng
ph\u00eda th\u01b0\u1ee3ng l\u01b0u M\u00e2u Giang ( th\u1eddi Tam Qu\u1ed1c l\u00e0 \u00edch ch\u00e2u).

Theo c\u00e1ch ph\u00e2n chia ch\u01b0 h\u1ea7u, th\u00ec \u00c2u Vi\u1ec7t ch\u01b0a ph\u1ea3i l\u00e0
ch\u01b0 h\u1ea7u c\u1ee7a nh\u00e0 Chu (1122 - 221 tr\u01b0\u1edbc c\u00f4ng nguy\u00ean).

C\u00e1c d\u00e2n t\u1ed9c chung quanh l\u00e3nh th\u1ed5 H\u00e1n t\u1ed9c, ng\u01b0\u1eddi H\u00e1n
g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 B\u1eafc \u00d0\u1ecbch, T\u00e2y Nhung, \u00d0\u00f4ng Di v\u00e0 Nam Man. B\u1ed9 t\u1ed9c
\u00c2u Vi\u1ec7t c\u00f9ng m\u1ed9t h\u1ea1ng v\u1edbi T\u00e2y Nhung. C\u00e1c vua H\u00e1n t\u1ef1
x\u01b0ng l\u00e0 thi\u00ean t\u1eed (con tr\u1eddi), \u0111\u1eb7c ra h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng ng\u0169 ph\u1ee5c.
Ph\u1ee5c l\u00e0 ph\u1ee5c v\u1ee5 thi\u00ean t\u1eed. S\u00e1ch Chu L\u1ec5 m\u1ee5c Quan Ch\u1ee9c
th\u00ec vi\u1ebft r\u00f5: "Ph\u1ee5c: Ph\u1ee5c s\u1ef1c thi\u00ean t\u1eed d\u00e3", ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 Ph\u1ee5c
t\u1ee9c l\u00e0 l\u00e0m vi\u1ec7c cho thi\u00ean t\u1eed v\u1eady.

Nh\u00e0 Chu l\u1ea5y kinh \u0111\u00f4 (kinh s\u01b0) l\u00e0m tr\u1ee5c trung t\u00e2m t\u1ee9c l\u1ea5y
n\u01a1i thi\u00ean t\u1eed \u1edf l\u00e0m chu\u1ea9n (l\u1ea5y H\u00e0m D\u01b0\u01a1ng, kinh \u0111\u00f4 T\u1ea7n
Th\u1ee7y Ho\u00e0ng hay Tr\u01b0\u1eddng An \u0111\u1eddi H\u00e1n \u0111\u1ec1u \u1edf t\u1ec9nh Thi\u1ec3m
T\u00e2y ng\u00e0y nay). N\u01b0\u1edbc ch\u01b0 h\u1ea7u \u1edf c\u00e1ch kinh \u0111\u00f4 500 d\u1eb7m
g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 "\u0111i\u1ec7n ph\u1ee5c", n\u01b0\u1edbc \u1edf c\u00e1ch kinh \u0111\u00f4 100 d\u1eb7m g\u1ecdi l\u00e0
"h\u1ea7u ph\u1ee5c", "y\u00eau ph\u1ee5c" hay "hoang ph\u1ee5c" \u1edf c\u00e1ch xa
kinh \u0111\u00f4 t\u1eeb 1500 \u0111\u1ebfn 2000 d\u1eb7m.

Theo s\u00e1ch Hoa D\u01b0\u01a1ng Qu\u1ed1c Ch\u00ed \u0111\u1eddi T\u1ea5n (q.1 v\u00e0 q.13),
n\u01b0\u1edbc Th\u1ee5c t\u1ee9c \u00c2u Vi\u1ec7t \u1edf ph\u00eda \u0111\u00f4ng, li\u1ec1n v\u1edbi n\u01b0\u1edbc Ba,
ph\u00eda b\u1eafc th\u00e0nh \u00d0\u00f4 (\u00edch ch\u00e2u), ph\u00eda nam l\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc Vi\u1ec7t (T\u00e2y
Thi g\u00e1i n\u01b0\u1edbc Vi\u1ec7t v\u00e0 Vi\u1ec7t V\u01b0\u01a1ng C\u00e2u Ti\u1ec5n).

Nh\u01b0 v\u1eady n\u01b0\u1edbc Th\u1ee5c thu\u1ed9c v\u1ec1 hoang ph\u1ee5c. N\u01b0\u1edbc V\u0103n
Lang c\u1ee7a t\u1ed9c L\u1ea1c Vi\u1ec7t \u1edf ph\u00eda Nam d\u00e3y Ng\u0169 L\u0129nh, kh\u00f4ng
thu\u1ed9c ng\u0169 ph\u1ee5c, ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng n\u1eb1m trong khu v\u1ef1c ch\u01b0
h\u1ea7u Trung Qu\u1ed1c d\u00f9 l\u00e0 hoang ph\u1ee5c. L\u00e3nh th\u1ed5 L\u1ea1c Vi\u1ec7t -
B\u00e1ch Vi\u1ec7t \u1edf ph\u00eda Nam Ng\u0169 l\u0129nh. Theo ng\u1ecdc ph\u1ea3 \u0111\u1ec1n Vua
H\u00f9ng do Ti\u1ebfn s\u0129 Nguy\u1ec5n S\u1ef9 C\u1ed1 so\u1ea1n n\u0103m H\u1ed3ng \u00d0\u1ee9c th\u1ee9
2 (1471): "H\u00f9ng V\u01b0\u01a1ng b\u00e1ch no\u00e3n ti\u00ean cung th\u1ee7y b\u1ed9 linh
th\u1ea7n" v\u00e0 b\u1ea3n "H\u00f9ng \u0111\u00f4 th\u1eadp b\u00e1t \u0111i\u1ec7p th\u00e1nh v\u01b0\u01a1ng" so\u1ea1n
n\u0103m 1472, ghi r\u00f5 15 b\u1ed9 s\u00e1ch c\u1ee7a n\u01b0\u1edbc ta th\u1eddi V\u0103n Lang
trong \u0111\u00f3 c\u00f3 b\u1ed9 Ai Lao Di (kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i n\u01b0\u1edbc Ai Lao ng\u00e0y
nay), b\u1ed9 Qu\u1ea3ng \u00d0\u00f4ng v\u00e0 b\u1ed9 Qu\u1ea3ng T\u00e2y. Ph\u1ee5c c\u0169ng c\u00f3
ngh\u0129a l\u00e0 tri\u1ec1u c\u1ed1ng. V\u0103n Lang \u1edf ngo\u00e0i ng\u0169 ph\u1ee5c t\u1ee9c
kh\u00f4ng tri\u1ec1u c\u1ed1ng thi\u00ean t\u1eed H\u00e1n t\u1ed9c. Cho n\u00ean s\u00e1ch Thi\u00ean
Nam Ng\u1eef L\u1ee5c, b\u1ed9 thi s\u1eed c\u00e2y 137 - 138 vi\u1ebft:

"\u1eaet c\u00f2n d\u00f2ng d\u00f5i thi\u00ean h\u01b0\u01a1ng
\u00d0\u00e3 ngo\u00e0i ng\u0169 ph\u1ee5c kh\u1ea3 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u1ea1ch ng\u01b0\u1eddi"
(\u00fd n\u00f3i, L\u1ea1c Long Qu\u00e2n tuy \u1edf ngo\u00e0i c\u00f5i ng\u0169 ph\u1ee5c, v\u1eabn l\u00e0
d\u00f2ng d\u00f5i thi\u00ean h\u01b0\u01a1ng, v\u1eabn ch\u1ecdn \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u00e0ng Ti\u00ean \u00c2u C\u01a1,
con vua \u00d0\u1ebf Lai l\u00e0m v\u1ee3).

Ng\u01b0\u1eddi Qu\u1ea3ng \u00d0\u00f4ng cho \u0111\u1ebfn nay v\u1eabn t\u1ef1 nh\u1eadn m\u00ecnh l\u00e0
Vi\u1ec7t nh\u00e2n (ch\u1eef Vi\u1ec7t nh\u00e2n Qu\u1ea3ng \u00d0\u00f4ng thu\u1ed9c b\u1ed9 m\u1ec5, Vi\u1ec7t
trong Vi\u1ec7t Nam thu\u1ed9c b\u1ed9 t\u1ea9u). Tr\u01b0\u1edbc \u0111\u1eddi T\u1ea7n Th\u1ee7y Ho\u00e0ng
(221 - 209 tr\u01b0\u1edbc c\u00f4ng nguy\u00ean), L\u01b0\u1ee1ng Qu\u1ea3ng hay L\u0129nh
Nam thu\u1ed9c c\u01b0\u01a1ng v\u1ef1c V\u0103n Lang "k\u1ec3 t\u1eeb th\u1eddi T\u1ea7n Th\u1ee7y
Ho\u00e0ng \u0111\u1ec3 chinh ph\u1ee5c B\u00e1ch Vi\u1ec7t ph\u01b0\u01a1ng nam, d\u00e2n Hoa \u1edf
trung b\u1ed9 di c\u01b0 xu\u1ed1ng Qu\u1ea3ng \u00d0\u00f4ng t\u1eeb T\u00e2y An, d\u1ecdc theo
H\u00e1n t\u1eed xu\u1ed1ng H\u00e1n t\u1eed xu\u1ed1ng T\u00e2y Giang \u0111\u1ebfn Qu\u1ea3ng \u00d0\u00f4ng.
\u00d0\u1ebfn \u0111\u1eddi \u00d0\u00f4ng H\u00e1n tr\u00e0o l\u01b0u di c\u01b0 xu\u1ed1ng Qu\u1ea3ng \u00d0\u00f4ng m\u1edbi
m\u1ea1nh. Ngay tr\u01b0\u1edbc th\u1eddi nh\u00e0 H\u00e1n (206 tr\u01b0\u1edbc c\u00f4ng nguy\u00ean
- 220 sau c\u00f4ng nguy\u00ean), mi\u1ec1n Qu\u1ea3ng T\u00e2y c\u00f2n \u1edf ngo\u00e0i
ph\u1ea1m vi \u1ea3nh h\u01b0\u1edfng Trung Hoa v\u00e0 theo \u0111\u1ea5y th\u00ec \u00edt c\u00f3 \u1ea3nh
h\u01b0\u1edfng H\u00e1n h\u1ecdc" La H\u01b0\u01a1ng l\u00e2m (gi\u00e1o th\u1ee5), "S\u1ef1 b\u00e0nh
tr\u01b0\u1edbng v\u0103n h\u00f3a Trung Hoa v\u1ec1 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng Nam v\u00e0 s\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t
tri\u1ec3n h\u1ecdc th\u1ee9c \u1edf Qu\u1ea3ng \u00d0\u00f4ng", Kh\u1ea3o c\u1ed5 T\u1eadp san s\u1ed1 VIII,
S\u00e0i G\u00f2n 1974 tr. 115 - 142, b\u1ea3n d\u1ecbch c\u1ee7a Gi\u00e1o s\u01b0
Nguy\u1ec5n \u00d0\u0103ng Th\u1ee5c).

C\u01b0\u01a1ng v\u1ef1c B\u00e1ch Vi\u1ec7t - L\u1ea1c Vi\u1ec7t: T\u1eeb Hoa Nam \u0111\u1ebfn Ninh

D\u00e2n L\u01b0\u1ee1ng Qu\u1ea3ng tuy H\u00e1n h\u00f3a nh\u01b0ng v\u1eabn c\u00f3 ri\u00eang v\u0103n h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 truy\u1ec1n th\u1ed1ng L\u01b0\u1ee1ng Qu\u1ea3ng. Ng\u01b0\u1eddi Qu\u1ea3ng \u00d0\u00f4ng cho \u0111\u1ebfn nay v\u1eabn d\u00f9ng ti\u1ebfng Qu\u1ea3ng \u00d0\u00f4ng, B\u1ea1ch Tho\u1ea1i (hay Quan Tho\u1ea1i) l\u00e0 ng\u00f4n ng\u1eef th\u1ee9 hai m\u1eb7c d\u1ea7u l\u00e0 ng\u00f4n ng\u1eef ch\u00ednh th\u1ee9c c\u1ee7a Trung Qu\u1ed1c.

Nhi\u1ec1u h\u1ecdc gi\u1ea3 T\u00e2y Ph\u01b0\u01a1ng nh\u01b0 Aucohrt l\u1ea1i ng\u1ed9 nh\u1eadn
"Ng\u01b0\u1eddi Vi\u1ec7t Nam g\u1ed1c \u1edf Trung Hoa. N\u0103m 334 tr\u01b0\u1edbc c\u00f4ng
nguy\u00ean b\u1ecb d\u1ed3n xu\u1ed1ng ph\u01b0\u01a1ng Nam". \u00d0i\u1ec1u n\u00e0y \u0111\u00fang m\u1ed9t
ph\u1ea7n, nh\u01b0 t\u1ed9c Th\u1ee5c \u00c2u L\u1ea1c b\u1ecb d\u1ed3n xu\u1ed1ng ph\u01b0ong Nam t\u1eeb
th\u01b0\u1ee3ng l\u01b0u s\u00f4ng M\u00e2n Giang. Nh\u01b0ng L\u1ea1c Vi\u1ec7t l\u00e0 d\u00e2n b\u1ea3n
\u0111\u1ecba, c\u01b0\u01a1ng v\u1ef1c tr\u1ea3i d\u00e0i t\u1eeb ph\u00eda Nam h\u1ed3 \u00d0\u1ed9ng \u00d0\u00ecnh cho
\u0111\u1ebfn C\u1eedu Ch\u00e2n, Nh\u1eadt Nam (Vi\u1ec7t Th\u01b0\u1eddng). Phan Rang
ng\u00e0y nay coi l\u00e0 ngo\u00e0i bi\u00ean. (V\u1ec1 B\u00ecnh Thu\u1eadn, Ninh Thu\u1eadn,
\u00d0\u1ea1i Nam Nh\u1ea5t Th\u1ed1ng Ch\u00ed, ph\u1ea7n "ki\u1ebfn tr\u00ed duy\u00ean c\u00e1ch"
ch\u00e9p: "\u00d0\u1ea5t \u0111\u00e2y nguy\u00ean x\u01b0a l\u00e0 n\u01b0\u1edbc Nh\u1eadt Nam \u1edf ki\u1ebfn
ngo\u1ea1i (ngo\u00e0i bi\u00ean) sau l\u00e0 \u0111\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a Chi\u00eam Th\u00e0nh" (\u00d0\u1ea1i
Nam Nh\u1ea5t Th\u1ed1ng Ch\u00ed, q.XII, t\u1ec9nh B\u00ecnh Thu\u1eadn, tr.7).

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