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3G Wireless

3G Wireless

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Published by Mehedi Hasan
This assignment is aimed at operators, network manufacturers, service providers, engineers, university students, and academicians who are interested in understanding how 3G Wireless systems should be designed and engineered.
This assignment is aimed at operators, network manufacturers, service providers, engineers, university students, and academicians who are interested in understanding how 3G Wireless systems should be designed and engineered.

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Published by: Mehedi Hasan on Oct 19, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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11/06/2012

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1
Introduction:
3G
is the
third generation
of mobile phone standards and technology, superseding2.5G. It is based on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards under the IMT-2000.3G networks enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advancedservices while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectralefficiency. Services include wide-area wireless voice telephony, video calls, andbroadband wireless data, all in a mobile environment. Additional features also includeHSPA data transmission capabilities able to deliver speeds up to 14.4Mbit/s on thedownlink and 5.8Mbit/s on the uplink.Unlike IEEE 802.11 (common names Wi-Fi or WLAN) networks, 3G networks are
wide area cellular telephone networks
which evolved to incorporate high-speedinternet access and video telephony. IEEE 802.11 networks are short range, high-bandwidth networks primarily developed for data.
Implementation and history
The first pre-commercial 3G network was launched by NTT DoCoMo in Germanybranded FOMA, in May 2001 on a pre-release of W-CDMA-GA3Y technology. Thefirst commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on October 1,2001. The second network to go commercially live was by SK Telecom in SouthKorea on the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO technology in January 2002. By May 2002 thesecond South Korean 3G network was launched by KTF on EV-DO and thus theKoreans were the first to see competition among 3G operators.The first European pre-commercial network was at the Isle of Man by Manx Telecom,the operator owned by British Telecom, and the first commercial network in Europewas opened for business by Telenor in December 2001 with no commercial handsetsand thus no paying customers. These were both on the W-CDMA technology.The first commercial United States 3G network was by Monet Mobile Networks, onCDMA2000 1x EV-DO technology, but this network provider later shut downoperations. The second 3G network operator in the USA was Verizon Wireless inOctober 2003 also on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO, and this network has grown stronglysince then.The first pre-commercial demonstration network in the southern hemisphere was builtin Adelaide, South Australia by m.Net Corporation in February 2002 using UMTS on2100 MHz. This was a demonstration network for the 2002 IT World Congress. Thefirst commercial 3G network was launched by Hutchison Telecommunicationsbranded as
Three
in April 2003.In December 2007, 190 3G networks were operating in 40 countries and 154 HSDPAnetworks were operating in 71 countries, according to the GMSA. In Asia, Europe,Canada and the USA, telecommunication companies use W-CDMA technology withthe support of around 100 terminal designs to operate 3G mobile networks.
 
2In Europe, mass market commercial 3G services were introduced starting in March2003 by 3 (Part of Hutchison Whampoa) in the UK and Italy. The European UnionCouncil suggested that the 3G operators should cover 80% of the European nationalpopulations by the end of 2005.Roll-out of 3G networks was delayed in some countries by the enormous costs of additional spectrum licensing fees. (See Telecoms crash.) In many countries, 3Gnetworks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G, so mobile operators must buildentirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies; an exception is theUnited States where carriers operate 3G service in the same frequencies as otherservices. The license fees in some European countries were particularly high,bolstered by government auctions of a limited number of licenses and sealed bidauctions, and initial excitement over 3G's potential. Other delays were due to theexpenses of upgrading equipment for the new systems.By June 2007 the 200 millionth 3G subscriber had been connected. Out of 3 billionmobile phone subscriptions worldwide this is only 6.7%. In the countries where 3Gwas launched first - Japan and South Korea - over half of all subscribers use 3G. InEurope the leading country is Italy with a third of its subscribers migrated to 3G.Other leading countries by 3G migration include UK, Austria, Australia andSingapore at the 20% migration level. A confusing statistic is counting CDMA 20001x RTT customers as if they were 3G customers. If using this oft-disputed definition,then the total 3G subscriber base would be 475 million at June 2007 and 15.8% of allsubscribers worldwide.Still several major countries such as Turkey, China, Indonesia, etc have not awarded3G licenses and customers await 3G services. China has been delaying its decisionson 3G for many years, partly hoping to have the Chinese 3G standard, TD-SCDMA,to mature for commercial production.China announced in May 2008, that the telecoms sector was re-organized and three3G networks would be allocated so that the largest mobile operator, China Mobile,would retain its GSM customer base and launch 3G onto the Chinese standard, TD-SCDMA. China Unicom would retain its GSM customer base but relinquish itsCDMA2000 customer base, and launch 3G on the globally leading WCDMA (UMTS)standard. The CDMA2000 customers of China Unicom would go to China Telecom,which would then launch 3G on the CDMA 1x EV-DO standard. This means thatChina will have all three main cellular technology 3G standards in commercial use.The first African use of 3G technology was a 3G videocall made in Johannesburg onthe Vodacom network in November 2004. The first commercial launch of 3G inAfrica was by EMTEL in Mauritius on the W-CDMA standard. In north AfricanMorocco in late March 2006, a 3G service was provided by the new company Wana.Rogers Wireless began implementing 3G HSDPA services in eastern Canada early2007 in the form of Rogers Vision. Fido Solutions and Rogers Wireless now offer 3Gservice in most urban centres.
 
3
First- and Second-Generation Cellular Radio Network:
First-generation wireless systems provide analog speech and inefficient, low-rate datatransmission between the base station and the mobile user. The speech signals areusually digitized for transmission between the base station and the MSC. AMPS[You79] is an example of the first-generation wireless network which was first builtby engineers from AT&T Bell Laboratories. In the first-generation cellular networks,the MSC maintains all mobile related handoff. The MSC also performs all of information and controls each mobile the network management functions, e.g., callhandling and processing, billing, etc. The MSC is interconnected with the PSTN viawired trunks and a tandem switch. MSCs are also connected with other MSCs viadedicated signaling channels (mostly via SS7 network) for the exchange of location,authentication, and call signaling information.
Figure 1: First-Generation Cellular Network
Figure 1 shows a diagram of a first-generation cellular radio network, whichincludes the mobile terminals, the base stations, and the Mobile SwitchingCenters.Second-generation wireless systems use digital modulation and provideadvanced call processing capabilities. Examples of second-generationwireless systems include the TDMA and CDMA US digital standards (e.g.,Telecommunication Industry Association IS-136 and IS95 standards), and theGlobal System for Mobile (GSM). In second-generation wireless systems, abase station controller (refer to Figure 2) is inserted between the base stationsand the MSC to reduce the computational burden of the MSC. Dedicatedcontrol channels are provided within the air interface for exchanging voice andcontrol information simultaneously between the subscriber, the base station,and the MSC while a call is in progress. Second-generation wireless networkswere also designed to provide paging, facsimile, and higher-data rate networkaccess. In addition, the mobile units perform more tasks to assist in handoffdecision, e.g., reporting of received power and adjacent base station scanning.

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