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Modes II

Modes II

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03/18/2014

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Modes II
Welcome all to my complete lesson on modes. In this lessons, I hope to explain in detail what modes are,
how they work and how they can be applied to music.

1. Enharmonics and Diatonics
2. Modes Defined
2.1 Modes Feelings
3. Constructing Modes
3.1 Example 1: Dorian Mode construction
3.2 Example 2: A# Phrygian Mode
3.3 List of Intervals
4. Chords Over Modes
4.2 Major Modes
4.3 The Minor Modes
4.4 what's left? Locrian
4.5.1 Ionian Mode
4.5.2 Dorian Mode
4.5.3 Phrygian Mode
4.5.4 Lydian Mode
4.5.5 Mixolydian Mode

4.5.6 Aeolian Mode

4.5.7 Locrian Mode
4.6 Just looking for that feeling?
4.7 Until next time!
5. Modal Chord Progressions
5.1 What is a chord progression
5.3 Moving Modes
5.3.1 Step 1 - Moving to the mode
5.3.2 Step 2 - Applying the rules
5.4 Roman Numerals
5.5 And there you have it!

1. Enharmonically Speaking

Ok, before we go on, there's one thing you need to know. Enharmonics, and diatonics. A Definition for
enharmonics means Two names for one meaning. Ok, lets use an audible example. Play the 2nd fret of the
Low E String. Hear that? It is a half step above F, and can be called F#. However, it is a half step below G
and so it can also be called Gb. These are exactly the same thing. Another example, the 1st fret of the B
string. This is a C note. However, it's also called B#. Below, I have included a list of enharmonics, just for

A > A#/Bb > B/Cb > B#/C > C#/Db > D > D#/Eb > E/Fb > E#/F > F#/Gb > G > G#/Ab
The next thing, is Diatonics. This means you need, in a 7 tone scale, each note used at least once. For
example, in the C Major scale, we use all the notes:
C D E F GAB C
This scale, is therefore, diatonically correct. Lets use another example. The F# Major scale, but make it
diatonically incorrect:
E Gb Ab A B Db Eb E
Why isn't this scale diatonically correct? Well look at it. Where is the F note and C note? Why has the A
and E notes been used twice? This can easily be solved using enharmonics:
E F# G# A B C# D# E
Fb Gb Ab Bbb Cbb Db Eb Fb
These are both enharmonically and diatonically correct versions of the E (or Fb) Major scale.
2. Modes Defined

Modes are much like scales. They are a series of intervals, which with a scale key provide a series of
pitches. You can build modes of any scale. But for the time being, and to avoid confusion, I'll only be
talking about modes of the major scale. The difference between modes and scales, is that a mode comes
from a scale. For example, the C Major scale has these notes:

C D E F GAB C
A Mode is basically, the exact same scale, but starting on a different note. Therefore, the first mode of
the C Major scale would be this:
D E F GAB C D
A good way to see how this works, is to look at the diagram of modes below. Each mode is derieved from
the C Major scale.
C ionian:
C D E F GAB C
D dorian:
D E F GAB C D
E phrygian: E F G A B C D E
F lydian:
F GAB C D E F

G mixolydian: G A B C D E F G
A aeolian: A B C D E F G A
B locrian: B C D E F G A B

There are 7 different notes in the major scale. This means, we can create a total of 7 different modes
from the major scale alone. These modes are:

Ionian
Dorian
Phrygian
Lydian
Mixolydian
Aeolian
Locrian

2.1 Modes Feelings.

Each mode of the major scale can create it's own, individual sound. However, you can only accomplish this
sound by learning the theory behind modes. So what do I mean, "individual sounds"? Well, Each one of
those 7 modes can, if used properly, sound distinctive. Guitarists use modes in to suit the feeling of the
song they are trying to write. If they are trying to write a happy song, they'll use a certain mode, if they
try to give the song a sad sound, they'll use another mode. And so on.

3. Constructing Modes

This part of the lesson will either be very confusing, or very simple, although, when you understand how it works, and it suddenly clicks, it'll all make sense! Ok, this is why, you need to know about the major scale and intervals. Lets start with the basics.

We know each degree, or note, of the major scale is the root note of a mode. Therefore, the first note of
the Major scale, creates the first mode, which is Ionian. The second note of the major scale creates the
second mode, which is Dorian. The third note of the major scale creates the third mode, which is
Phrygian, and so on. Lets start with the 1st degree of the major scale.

This creates the Ionian mode. But you might be thinking; "Well, if the root note of the major scale creates
the Ionian mode, does that mean there's two names for one scale?" The answer is yes. The major scale,
can also be called the Ionian mode. This is our starting scale, so give each note of the Major scale an
interval. In these examples, I will be using the C Major scale.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 - Major scale intervals
C D E F G A B C - C Major scale
You should be familiar with this. So, we've already constructed our first mode! Congratulations.
3.1 Example 1: Dorian Mode Construction.

Lets move onto the Dorian mode. This is the second mode of the major scale, so we start on the second note / degree. Because we are using the C Major scale, the root note of the Dorian mode will be "D", and this is our D Dorian mode:

D E F GAB C D
The next step, is to compare the notes of the D Major scale with the D Dorian Mode:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 - Major scale intervals
D E F# G A B C# D - D Major Scale
D E F G A B C D - D Dorian Mode

There are two differences between the notes. In the Major scale, there is an F#, however, in the Dorian scale, it's only a F. Also, In the major scale, there is a C#, however, in the Dorian mode, there is a normal C. So, how do we get the major scale to flatten it's 3rd and 7th notes? by putting a flat (b) sign before it's intervals:

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 - Major scale intervals
D E F# G A B C# D - D Major Scale
1 2 b3 4 5 6 b7 1 - Our new flattened 3rd and 7th intervals

| |||||||
vv vvvvvv
D E F G A B C D - D Dorian Mode
3.2 Example 2: D Phrygian Mode Construction.
Lets take a more harder one. Our base will be the Bb Major scale.
1 2345671
Bb C D Eb F G A Bb
We want to find out the intervals used in the Phrygian Scale. So, the phrygian scale is the 3rd Major mode,
so we find the 3rd note of our Bb Major scale. It's D, therefore, we will be using the D Phrygian mode.
D Phrygian:

D Eb F G A Bb C D
So, we have the notes for the D Phrygian scale, now we need to compare them to the D Major scale:
D Eb F G A Bb C D - D Phrygian Mode

D E F# G A B C# D - D Major scale
As you can see, there are a lot of differences. Lets start from the left and work to the right.