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Introduction to Javascript

Introduction to Javascript

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Introduction to JavaScript
JavaScript is used in millions of Web pages to improve the design, validate forms, detect
browsers, create cookies, and much more.
JavaScript is the most popular scripting language on the internet, and works in all major
browsers, such as Internet Explorer, Mozilla, Firefox, Netscape, Opera.
What You Should Already Know
Before you continue you should have a basic understanding of the following:
\u2022
HTML / XHTML
If you want to study these subjects first, find the tutorials on our Home page.
What is JavaScript?
\u2022
JavaScript was designed to add interactivity to HTML pages
\u2022
JavaScript is a scripting language (a scripting language is a lightweight programming
language)
\u2022
A JavaScript consists of lines of executable computer code
\u2022
A JavaScript is usually embedded directly into HTML pages
\u2022
JavaScript is an interpreted language (means that scripts execute without preliminary
compilation)
\u2022
Everyone can use JavaScript without purchasing a license
Are Java and JavaScript the Same?

NO!
Java and JavaScript are two completely different languages in both concept and design!
Java (developed by Sun Microsystems) is a powerful and much more complex programming

language - in the same category as C and C++.
What can a JavaScript Do?
\u2022
JavaScript gives HTML designers a programming tool - HTML authors are
normally not programmers, but JavaScript is a scripting language with a very simple
syntax! Almost anyone can put small "snippets" of code into their HTML pages
\u2022
JavaScript can put dynamic text into an HTML page - A JavaScript statement like
this: document.write("<h1>" + name + "</h1>") can write a variable text into an
HTML page
\u2022
JavaScript can react to events - A JavaScript can be set to execute when something
happens, like when a page has finished loading or when a user clicks on an HTML
element
\u2022
JavaScript can read and write HTML elements - A JavaScript can read and change
the content of an HTML element
\u2022
JavaScript can be used to validate data - A JavaScript can be used to validate form
data before it is submitted to a server, this will save the server from extra processing
\u2022
JavaScript can be used to detect the visitor's browser - A JavaScript can be used to
detect the visitor's browser, and - depending on the browser - load another page
specifically designed for that browser
\u2022
JavaScript can be used to create cookies - A JavaScript can be used to store and
retrieve information on the visitor's computer
JavaScript Guidelines
Some other important things to know when scripting with JavaScript.
JavaScript is Case Sensitive
A function named "myfunction" is not the same as "myFunction" and a variable named
"myVar" is not the same as "myvar".
JavaScript is case sensitive - therefore watch your capitalization closely when you create or
call variables, objects and functions.
White Space
JavaScript ignores extra spaces. You can add white space to your script to make it more
readable. The following lines are equivalent:
name="Hege"
name = "Hege"
Break up a Code Line
You can break up a code line within a text string with a backslash. The example below will
be displayed properly:
document.write("Hello \
World!")
However, you cannot break up a code line like this:
document.write \
("Hello World!")
Comments
You can add comments to your script by using two slashes //:
//this is a comment
document.write("Hello World!")
or by using /* and */ (this creates a multi-line comment block):

/* This is a comment
block. It contains
several lines */
document.write("Hello World!")

JavaScript How To ...
The HTML <script> tag is used to insert a JavaScript into an HTML page.
Examples
Write text
How to write text on a page.
Write text with formatting
How to format the text on your page with HTML tags.
How to Put a JavaScript Into an HTML Page

<html>
<body>
<script type="text/javascript">

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