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Solid State Physics Course_Linus Pauling_2001

Solid State Physics Course_Linus Pauling_2001

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Chapter 1: Chemical Bonding
Linus Pauling (1901\u20131994)
December 28, 2001
Contents
1 The development of Bands and their \ufb01lling
4
2 Di\ufb00erent Types of Bonds
9
2.1 CovalentBonding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.2 IonicBonding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

2.2.1 MadelungSums. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.3 MetallicBonding. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.4 Van der Waals Bonds. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

2.4.1 Van der Waals-London Interaction. . . . . . . . 21
1
Ac89
Actinium
227.028
Th90
Thorium
232.038
Pa91
Protactinium
231.036
U
92
Uranium
238.029
Np93
Neptunium
237.048
Pu94
Plutonium
(244)
Am95
Americium
(243)
Cm96
Curium
(247)
Bk97
Berkelium
(247)
Cf98
Californium
(251)
Es99
Einsteinium
(252)
Fm100
Fermium
(257)
Md101
Mendelevium
(258)
No102
Nobelium
(259)
La57
Lanthanum
138.906
Ce58
Cerium
140.115
Pr59
Praseodymium
140.908
Nd60
Neodymium
144.24
Pm61
Promethium
(145)
Sm62
Samarium
150.36
Eu63
Europium
151.965
Gd64
Gadolinium
157.25
Tb65
Terbium
158.925
Dy66
Dysprosium
162.50
Ho67
Holmium
164.93
Er68
Erbium
167.26
Tm69
Thulium
168.934
Yb70
Ytterbium
173.04
7
Fr87
Francium
(223)
Ra88
Radium
226.025
Lr103
Lawrencium
(260)
6
Cs55
Caesium
132.905
Ba56
Barium
137.327
Lu71
Lutetium
174.967
Hf72
Halfnium
178.49
Ta73
Tantalum
180.948
W74
Tungsten
183.85
Re75
Rhenium
186.207
Os76
Osmium
190.2
Ir
77
Iridium
192.22
Pt78
Platinum
195.08
Au79
Gold
196.967
Hg80
Mercury
200.59
Tl81
Thallium
204.383
Pb82
Lead
207.2
Bi83
Bismuth
208.980
Po84
Polonium
(209)
At85
Astatine
(210)
Rn86
Radon
(222)
5
Rb37
Rubidium
85.468
Sr38
Strontium
87.62
Y
39
Yttrium
88.906
Zr40
Zirconium
91.224
Nb41
Niobium
92.906
Mo42
Molybdenum
95.94
Tc43
Technetium
(98)
Ru44
Ruthenium
101.07
Rh45
Rhodium
102.906
Pd46
Palladium
106.42
Ag47
Silver
107.868
Cd48
Cadmium
112.411
In49
Indium
114.82
Sn50
Tin
118.71
Sb51
Antimony
121.75
Te52
Tellurium
127.60
I
53
Iodine
126.905
Xe54
Xenon
131.29
4
K
19
Potassium
39.098
Ca20
Calcium
40.078
Sc21
Scandium
44.956
Ti22
Titanium
47.88
V
23
Vanadium
50.942
Cr24
Chromium
51.996
Mn25
Manganese
54.938
Fe26
Iron
55.847
Co27
Cobalt
58.933
Ni28
Nickel
58.69
Cu29
Copper
63.546
Zn30
Zinc
65.39
Ga31
Gallium
69.723
Ge32
Germanium
72.61
As33
Arsenic
74.922
Se34
Selenium
78.96
Br35
Bromine
79.904
Kr36
Krypton
83.80
3
Na11
Sodium
22.990
Mg12
Magnesium
24.305
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
Al13
Aluminum
26.982
Si
14
Silicon
28.086
P
15
Phosphorous
30.974
S
16
Sulfur
32.066
Cl17
Chlorine
35.453
Ar18
Argon
39.948
2
Li
3
Lithium
6.941
Be
4
Beryllium
9.012
B
5
Boron
10.811
C
6
Carbon
12.011
N
7
Nitrogen
14.007
O
8
Oxygen
15.999
F
9
Fluorine
18.998
Ne10
Neon
20.180
1
H
1
Hydrogen
1.008
2
13
14
15
16
17
He
2
Helium
4.003
1
18
Periodic Table
2

Solid state physics is the study of mainly periodic systems (or things that are close to periodic) in the thermodynamic limit\u2248 1021 atoms/cm3. At \ufb01rst this would appear to be a hopeless task, to solve such a large system.

Figure 1:The simplest model of a solid is a periodic array of valance orbitals embedded
in a matrix of atomic cores.

However, the self-similar, translationally invariant nature of the pe- riodic solid and the fact that the core electrons arevery tightly bound at each site (so we may ignore their dynamics) makes approximate so- lutions possible. Thus, the simplest model of a solid is a periodic array of valance orbitals embedded in a matrix of atomic cores. Solving the problem in one of the irreducible elements of the periodic solid (cf. one of the spheres in Fig. 1), is often equivalent to solving the whole sys- tem. For this reason we must study the periodicity and the mechanism (chemical bonding) which binds the lattice into a periodic structure. The latter is the emphasis of this chapter.

3

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