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Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

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Taxonomy of Educational Objectives
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This article or section needs to bewikified to meet Wikipedia'squal ity
standards.
Please help improve this article with relevant internal links. (March 2008)
The Bloom's Wheel, according to the Bloom's verbs and matching assessment types.
The verbs are all feasible and measurable.
The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, often calledBloom's
Taxonomy, is aclassificat io n of the different objectives and skills that
educators set for students (learning objectives). The taxonomy was proposed
in1956 by Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist at the University of
Chicago. Bloom's Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three

"domains:" Affective, Psychomotor, and Cognitive. Like other taxonomies, Bloom's is hierarchical, meaning that learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels (Orlich, et al. 2004). A goal of Bloom's Taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains, creating a moreholistic form of education.

Most references to the Bloom's Taxonomy only notice the Cognitive domain. There is also a so far less referred, revised version of the Taxonomy, published in 2001 under the name of "A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and assessing", eds. Anderson, Lorin W., Krathwohl, David R., Airasian, Peter W., Cruikshank, Kathleen A., Mayer, Richard E., Pintrich, Paul R., Raths, James and Wittrock, Merlin C.

[edit]Affective

Skills in the affective domain describe the way people react emotionally and their ability to feel another living thing's pain or joy. Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotion, and feelings. There are five levels in the affective domain moving through the lowest order processes to the highest:

Receiving
The lowest level; the student passively pays attention. Without this level no
learning can occur.
Responding
The student actively participates in the learning process, not only attends to a
stimulus, the student also reacts in some way.
Valuing
The student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon, or piece of
information.
Organizing

The student can put together different values, information, and ideas and accommodate them within his/her own schema; comparing, relating and elaborating on what has been learned.

Characterizing
The student has held a particular value or belief that now exerts influence on
his/her behaviour so that it becomes a characteristic.
Psychomotor

Skills in the psychomotor domain describe the ability to physically manipulate a tool or instrument like a hand or a hammer. Psychomotor objectives usually focus on change and/or development in behavior and/or skills.

Bloom and his colleagues never created subcategories for skills in the psychomotor domain, but since then other educators have created their own psychomotor taxonomies[1].

Cognitive
Categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl,
2001)

Skills in the cognitive domain revolve around knowledge, comprehension, and "thinking through" a particular topic. Traditional education tends to emphasize the skills in this domain, particularly the lower-order objectives.

There are six levels in the taxonomy, moving through the lowest order
processes to the highest:
Knowledge
Exhibit memory of previously-learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic
concepts and answers
\ue000
Knowledge of specifics - terminology, specific facts
\ue000
Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics - conventions,
trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology
\ue000
Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field - principles and
generalizations, theories and structures
Questions like: What is...?
Comprehension
Demonstrative understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing,
translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas
\ue000
Translation
\ue000
Interpretation
\ue000
Extrapolation
Questions like: How would you compare and contrast...?
Application
Using new knowledge. Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired
knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way
Questions like: Can you organize_ ______ to show...?
Analysis
Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes.
Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations
\ue000
Analysis of elements
\ue000
Analysis of relationships
\ue000
Analysis of organizational principles
Questions like: How would you classify...?
Synthesis

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