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Powder Sampling and Size Determination

Powder Sampling and Size Determination

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Published by: api-3857944 on Oct 19, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Preface
Although man's environment, from the interstellar dust to the earth beneathhis feet, is composed of finely divided material his knowledge of theproperties of such material is surprisingly slight. For many years scientistshave accepted that matter can exist as solids, liquids or gases: Although thedividing line between the states may often be rather blurred; this classificationhas been upset by powders which at rest are solids, when aerated may behaveas liquids and when suspended in a gas take on some of the properties of the
gas.
Superficially one would consider DuPont to be a chemical company butthis is a misconception. Two-thirds of DuPont's products are sold in the formof powders and eighty percent, contain powders. It is therefore essential thatemployees of this and similar companies should have an understanding ofpowder properties and behaviour.It is now widely recognised that powder technology is a field of study in itsown right. The industrial applications of this new science are far reaching.The size of fine particles affects the properties of
a
powder in many ways. Forexample, it determines the setting time for cement, the hiding power ofpigments, the activity of chemical catalysts, the taste of food, the potency ofdrugs and the sintering shrinkage of metallurgical powders. Particle sizemeasurement is to powder technology as thermometry is to the study of heat.In making a decision on which particle sizing technique to us, the analystmust consider the purpose of the analysis. What is generally required is notthe size of
the
particles, but the value of some property that is size dependent.In such circumstances it is important whenever possible to measure the sizedependent property, rather than to measure the "size" by some other methodand then deduce the required property. For example, in determining the "size"of boiler (fly) ash with a view to predicting atmospheric pollution the terminalvelocities of the particles should be measured; in measuring the "size" ofcatalyst particles, the surface area should be measured, since this is theproperty that determines the reactivity. The cost of the equipment as well asthe ease and the speed with which the analysis can be carried out have then tobe considered. The final criteria are that the method shall measure theappropriate property of the particles, with accuracy sufficient for the particularapplication at an acceptable cost, in a time that will allow the result to be used.
Terence Allen
 
Editor's Foreword
Particle science and technology is a key component of chemical product andprocess engineering and in order to achieve the economic goals of the nextdecade, a fundamental understanding of particle processes has to bedeveloped.In 1993 the US Department of Commerce estimated the impact of particlescience and technology to industrial output to be one trillion dollars annuallyin the United States. One third of this was in chemicals and allied products,another third was in textiles, paper and allied products and the final third wasin food and beverages, metals, minerals and coal.It was Hans Rumpf in the 1950's who related changes in the functionalbehavior of most particle processes to be a consequence of changes in theparticle size distribution. By measurement and control of the sizedistribution, one could control product and process behavior.This book is the most comprehensive text on particle size measurementpublished to date and expresses the experience of the author gained in overfifty years of research and consulting in particle technology. Previouseditions have found wide use as teaching and reference texts. For those notconversant with particle size analysis terminology, techniques andinstruments, the book contains basis information from which instrumentselection can be made. For those familiar with the field, it provides an updateof new instrumentation - particularly on-line or in - process instruments -upon which the control of particle processes is based.Overall, the book continues to be the international reference text onparticle size measurement and is a must for practitioners in the field.
Dr. Reg Davies
Particle Engineering Research Center, University of Florida

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