Now about the agriculturists the burden of the population was cited as important point inlimitation of the planners to allow the farmers and their families to depend on it. Whatmakes the development slow, not the land availability but lacking the per hectare productivity (we have not developed the technology). The fruits of the first
in the country cannot be harnessed even after thirty years we have to move onand take the realities of the ground on our hand. The land record system in the nation is bad and we have not maintained proper natural resource inventory, why we want todestroy the agricultural lands only in the name of the industry. Why we cannot developthe bad land, waste land and arid land for the benefit of agriculture? The area under theirrigation has not increased as per the desired scale in our states. Most of the developedstates have shun agriculture in lieu of industrialization are facing the shortage of areaunder the food crops. The backward states like UP, Bihar and Rajasthan has enough landto support the population, even if do not bother to understand the ‘carrying capacity’ of the land. The declining productivity is also result of the poor fertilizer policy (excessivesubsidy and use) resulting in making unfruitful utilization of it on the not so requiredarea.How to set things right or change the nature of growth? We have experienced in countrythat one can set up an industry worth billions of Rupees in India without any licensetoday, but a farmer in U.P. can neither set up a brick kiln unit, nor a rice shelling plant,nor a cold storage, and not even cut a tree standing on his own private field without bribing several officials. The impact of reforms on the poor has been adverse because of their vulnerable socio-economic position, and in such a case spending money ondevelopment schemes without improving their bargaining power will further impoverishthem. The sociological and political factors that lie behind the institutional constraints on poverty reduction get little mention in the government programmes. How existing policies impact on the poor is hardly analysed by the rural development departments of central and state governments.Government intervention should not only improve the incomes of the poor, but their bargaining power vis-a-vis the moneylenders, landlords and bureaucracy. Suchempowering measures need to be distinguished from the populist measures which merelyact as doles and do not enable the poor to stand on their own legs or fight for their rights.Empowerment is good in itself, leads to higher incomes, and checks corruption andarbitrary use of power. In the past this was sought to be achieved through land reforms,although it appears to be a closed chapter now.Another very important element which is emerging in the country is non-governmentalorganizations (NGO). There may be NGOs just making money and doing nothingwonderful, but there are also a large number of good NGOs who are workingindependent of government and they would after some time be very powerful and theCivil Services would have to compete with them. In Bangladesh, 80 to 90% of alldevelopment funds are spent through the NGOs. The coming years will see increasingimportance of NGOs in policy making and implementation in India too.