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C Language Tutorial

C Language Tutorial

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C\ue000LANGUAGE TUTORIAL

This tutorial teaches the entire C programming language. It is composed of 13 chapters which should be
studied in order since topics are introduced in a logical order and build upon topics introduced in
previous chapters. It is to the students benefit to download the source code for the example programs,
then compile and execute each program as it is studied. The diligent student will modify the example
program in some way, then recompile and execute it to see if he understands the material studied for that
program. This will provide the student with valuable experience using his compiler.

The recommended method of study is to print the text for one or two chapters, download the example programs, and study the material by loading the example programs in the compiler's editor for viewing. Following successful completion of each chapter, additional chapters can be downloaded as progress is made.

Version 2.8 - Sept 8, 1996 - (Files restructured on March 15, 1997)

This tutorial is distributed as shareware which means that you do not have to pay to use it. However, the
author spent a good deal of time and financial resources to develop this tutorial and requests that you
share in the financial burden in a very small way, but only if you felt the tutorial was valuable to you as
an aid in learning to program in C. If you wish to remit a small payment to the author, full instructions
for doing so will be given by clicking the link below. If you do not wish to remit any payment, please
feel free to use the tutorial anyway. In either case, I hope you find programming in C to be rewarding and
profitable. I personally think it is an excellent language.

How to Remit Payment For this Tutorial!
Introduction - What is C and why study it?
Chapter 1 - Getting Started
Chapter 2 - Program Structure
Chapter 3 - Program Control
Chapter 4 - Assignment & Logical Compare
Chapter 5 - Functions, Variables, & Prototyping
Chapter 6 - The C Preprocessor
Chapter 7 - Strings and Arrays
Chapter 8 - Pointers
Chapter 9 - Standard Input/Output
Chapter 10 - File Input/Output
Chapter 11 - Structures
Chapter 12 - Dynamic Allocation
Chapter 13 - Character and Bit Manipulation

Download the HTML Documentation - (chtm.zip) Download all of the above documents in one packed
C Language Tutorial
file:///E|/education/C\ue000LANGUAGE TUTORIAL/Clist.htm (1 of 2) [4/15/1999 2:45:52 AM]

file. This file (about 155k) contains the 14 files listed above (plus the diagrams) which can be
downloaded and unpacked for use locally. The content of this file is identical to the content of the above
files. There are no executable files in this group of files.

Download the Source Code - (csrc.zip) Download all example programs. This file (about 41k) contains
79 source files which are all explained in the 13 chapters of text. There are no executable files in this
group of files.
Download the Answers to Exercises- (cans.zip) Download the authors answers to all of the programming
exercises. This file (about 11k) contains 27 source files. There are no executable files in this group of
files.
Download the pkunzip executable - (pkunzip.exe) Download pkunzip.exe version 2.04 to unzip the

source code. This executable is pre-registered for your use in unzipping any Coronado Enterprises
tutorial files. It will unpack and generate the zipped files in the current directory and all will be ASCII
source code files. To unzip the source code files, execute the following DOS command;

pkunzip csrc.zip
Or, to unzip the answers to programming exercises, execute the following DOS command;
pkunzip cans.zip
Copyright \u00a9 1988-1997 Coronado Enterprises - Last update, March 15, 1997
Gordon Dodrill - dodrill@swcp.com - Please email any comments or suggestions.
C Language Tutorial
file:///E|/education/C\ue000LANGUAGE TUTORIAL/Clist.htm (2 of 2) [4/15/1999 2:45:52 AM]
Introduction to the C Tutorial
C IS USUALLY FIRST

The programming language C was originally developed by Dennis Ritchie of Bell Laboratories and was
designed to run on a PDP-11 with a UNIX operating system. Although it was originally intended to run
under UNIX, there has been a great interest in running it under the MS-DOS operating system on the
IBM PC and compatibles. It is an excellent language for this environment because of the simplicity of
expression, the compactness of the code, and the wide range of applicability. Also, due to the simplicity
and ease of writing a C compiler, it is usually the first high level language available on any new
computer, including microcomputers, minicomputers, and mainframes.

C is not the best beginning language because it is somewhat cryptic in nature. It allows the programmer a
wide range of operations from high level down to a very low level, approaching the level of assembly
language. There seems to be no limit to the flexibility available. One experienced C programmer made
the statement, "You can program anything in C", and the statement is well supported by my own
experience with the language. Along with the resulting freedom however, you take on a great deal of
responsibility because it is very easy to write a program that destroys itself due to the silly little errors
that a good Pascal compiler will flag and call a fatal error. In C, you are very much on your own as you
will soon find.

I ASSUME YOU KNOW NOTHING\ue000ABOUT\ue000C

In order to successfully complete this tutorial, you will not need any prior knowlede of the C
programming language. I will begin with the most basic concepts of C and take you up to the highest
level of C programming including the usually intimidating concepts of pointers, structures, and dynamic
allocation. To fully understand these concepts, it will take a good bit of time and work on your part
because they are not particularly easy to grasp, but they are very powerful tools. Enough said about that,
you will see their power when we get there, just don't allow yourself to worry about them yet.

Programming in C is a tremendous asset in those areas where you may want to use Assembly Language
but would rather keep it a "simple to write" and "easy to maintain" program. It has been said that a
program written in C will pay a premium of a 20 to 50% increase in runtime because no high level
language is as compact or as fast as Assembly Language. However, the time saved in coding can be
tremendous, making it the most desirable language for many programming chores. In addition, since
most programs spend 90 percent of their operating time in only 10 percent or less of the code, it is
possible to write a program in C, then rewrite a small portion of the code in Assembly Language and
approach the execution speed of the same program if it were written entirely in Assembly Language.

Even though the C language enjoys a good record when programs are transported from one
implementation to another, there are differences in compilers that you will find anytime you try to use
another compiler. Most of the differences become apparent when you use nonstandard extensions such as
calls to the DOS BIOS when using MS-DOS, but even these differences can be minimized by careful
choice of programming constructs.

Throughout this tutorial, every attempt will be made to indicate to you what constructs are available in
every C compiler because they are part of the ANSI-C standard, the accepted standard of C
C Tutorial - Introduction
file:///E|/education/C\ue000LANGUAGE TUTORIAL/intro.htm (1 of 3) [4/15/1999 2:46:29 AM]

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