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PhD Thesis - Javed Ahmed - R3 (Final)

PhD Thesis - Javed Ahmed - R3 (Final)

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Published by: api-3858870 on Oct 19, 2008
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03/18/2014

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ADAPTIVE EDGE-ENHANCED CORRELATION BASED
ROBUST AND REAL-TIME VISUAL TRACKING FRAMEWORK
AND ITS DEPLOYMENT IN MACHINE VISION SYSTEMS

by
Javed Ahmed

Submitted to the Department of Electrical Engineering,
Military College of Signals, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

National University of Sciences and Technology
Rawalpindi, Pakistan
February 2008
Approved for the Department of Electrical

Engineering
Supervisor
Chairman of the Guidance & Examination

Committee
Head of the Department
iii
Abstract

An adaptive edge-enhanced correlation based robust and real-time visual tracking framework, and two machine vision systems based on the framework are proposed. The visual tracking algorithm can trackany object of interest in a video acquired from a stationary or moving camera. It can handle the real-world problems, such as noise, clutter, occlusion, uneven illumination, varying appearance, orientation, scale, and velocity of the maneuvering object, and object fading and obscuration in low contrast video at various zoom levels. The proposed machine vision systems are an active camera tracking system and a vision based system for a UGV (unmanned ground vehicle) to handle a road intersection.

The core of the proposed visual tracking framework is anEdgeEnhanced
Back-propagation neural-network Controlled Fast Normalized Correlation (EE-
BCFNC), which makes the object localization stage efficient and robust tonoise,
object fading, obscuration, and uneven illumination. The incorrect template
initializationand template-drift problems of the traditional correlation tracker are
handled by a best-match rectangle adjustment algorithm. The varying appearance of
the object and the short-term neighboring clutter are addressed by a robusttemplate-
updating scheme. The background clutterand varying velocity of the object are

handled by looking for the object only in a dynamically resizable search window, in which the likelihood of the presence of the object is high. The search window is created using the prediction and the prediction error of a Kalman filter. The effect of the long-term neighboring clutter is reduced by weighting the template pixels using a 2D Gaussian weighting window withadaptive standard deviation parameters. The

occlusion is addressed by a data association technique. The varying scale of the object

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