XIII. Gas Laws and the Kinetic Theory of Gases
A. State Variables: Quantities that describe the condition or stateof a
1. Pressure:P =F /A [SI units: Pa = N m\u22122] or [cgs units:
2. Temperature: A measure of the amount of heat in a system
[K] or [\u25e6C].
3. Volume(or Density):
a) Mass Density:\u03c1 (\u2018rho\u2019)\u2261 amount of mass per unit
volume [SI units: kg m\u22123] or [cgs units: g cm\u22123].
b) Number Density:N (\u2018capital N\u2019)\u2261 number of parti-
cles per unit volume [SI units: m\u22123] or [cgs units: cm\u22123].
Note that one could include \u2018atoms,\u2019 \u2018molecules,\u2019 or \u2018par-
ticles\u2019 in the numerator of the units for this parameter,
but these terms are not reallyunits (like \u2018radian\u2019 and an-
gular \u2018degree\u2019), and as such, I have not included any of
these labels in the \u2018units\u2019 for number density, though their
inclusion are implied. (Note that your textbook uses
capital-N as the totalnumber of particles present
and not the way I de\ufb01ne it here.)
c)The total number of particles and volume can be ex-
pressed separately as well:
i) Volume:V\u2261 Total \u2018space\u2019 that the gas \ufb01lls [SI
units: m3] or [cgs units: cm3]