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Wrinkling in Sheet Metal Forming:Experimental Testing vs. NumericalAnalysis-IJFP Journal 2003 Selman2

Wrinkling in Sheet Metal Forming:Experimental Testing vs. NumericalAnalysis-IJFP Journal 2003 Selman2

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01/11/2013

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Wrinkling in Sheet Metal Forming:Experimental Testing vs. NumericalAnalysis
 
A. Selman
1
 
*
, E. Atzema
2
, T. Meinders
3
, A.H. van den Boogaard
3
and J. Huetink 
3
 
1
 Netherlands Institute for Metals Research,Rotterdamseweg 137 – 2628 AL Delft – The Netherlands
2
Corus Research Development & Technology, IJTC, Automotive Applications P.O. Box 10000 – 1970 CA IJmuiden – The Netherlands
3
University of Twente, Department of Mechanical Engineering, P.O. Box. 217 7500 AE Enschede – The Netherlands
 ___________________________________________________________________________ 
 ABSTRACT: Following a number of publications on numerical prediction of wrinkling in thin sheet metal forming, the present part of our work is devoted to the comparison of numerical results with those obtained through experimental testing. A number of hemispherical product  samples have been used with various blank holder forces and drawn to different depths tocapture the onset of wrinkling, its mode and location. KEY WORDS:
 
 Numerical Simulation, Finite Elements, Sheet Metal Forming, Error  Estimation, Wrinkling Prediction, Adaptive Mesh Refinement and Experimental Results.
 ___________________________________________________________________________ 
 
*
 
Please send all correspondence to: A. Selman, University of Twente, MechanicalEngineering Department, Po Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede, The Netherlands.
 
 
 
1. Introduction
In a numerical simulation, wrinkles can be detected by a visual inspection of thedeformed mesh, provided that the finite element discretisation is fine enough toallow a proper capture of the wrinkles. This, in general, makes it cumbersome to proceed with the analysis. Rather, it is desirable to proceed with a selectiverefinement to keep the computational cost low (acceptable). In this context [SEL 00,01a, 01b, 02], [BON 92, 94], [ROD 97], [GEL 98], and more generally in finiteelement simulations [SEL 90, 93, 97], adaptive mesh refinement plays an essentialrole. However, this implies that some kind of discretisation error estimators andwrinkling indicators are used to direct the refinement process [SEL 00, 01a, 01b,02], [AMZ 91], [NOR 97, 98], [BRU 97].In this work, the analysis of Hutchinson and Neale [HUT 85], which consists of formulating the problem within the context of plastic bifurcation theory for thin shellelements and its extension by Neale [NEA 89] to account for more generalconstitutive models, is used. Under a number of assumptions, limitations andsimplifications a simple wrinkling criterion with some restrictive applicability, isobtained. Nonetheless, the results are used to locally define a wrinkling risk factor or simply a wrinkling indicator, which, in turn, is used to detect the zones (elements) to be refined in a subsequent adaptive mesh refinement process.Hutchinson analysis is, unfortunately, limited to regions of the sheet that are freeof any contact. When contact is taken into account the problem is further complicated. Furthermore, given that numerical simulations of complex sheet metalforming involve large scale models, it is obvious that global wrinkling indicatorsfound in the literature - mostly based on eigen value analysis of the global tangentstiffness matrix - should not be used because of their high computational cost. Thisis to avoid over-loading the already time consuming deep drawing simulations.Consequently, an indicator based on the local change of curvatures has beendeveloped [SEL 00, 01a, 01b, 02].In wrinkling prediction analyses, the local curvature and the thickness, amongstother parameters, play a major role and should, therefore, be properly approximatedfrom the finite element meshes at all stages of the computation. In this context, theincorporation of discretisation error indicators and adaptive mesh refinement insheet metal forming processes is doubly important in keeping the computation costlow and allowing a comprehensive wrinkling prediction analysis.In recent publications we have presented numerical results on wrinkling prediction with Adaptive Mesh Refinement [SEL 00, 01a, 01b, 02]. However, in anumber of occasions a recurrent question kept rising: How do the numerical resultscompare with those obtained in experimental testing ? To shed some light on suchcomparison, a hemispherical product has been used as a benchmark and a number of  product samples stamped with various blank holder forces (BHF) and drawn todifferent depths to capture the onset of wrinkling, its mode and location.
 
 In Section 2, the experimental setting is presented. The finite element code usedin the numerical simulations as well as the comprehensive algorithm and indicatorsused are presented in Sections 3. In Section 4, the overall results are given and acomparison made.
2. Experimental procedure
To provide data for the validation of the wrinkling model a number of experimental tests were carried out using a hemispherical punch that was available.The tests were held on a triple action 400 tonne hydraulic press (SMG) used in adual action mode. The die was mounted on the ram and the punch and blank holder mounted on the bed. The blank holder was supported by 8 pins with a load cell ontop of each to measure the actual applied blank holder force. Moreover the pins wereshimmed to achieve best possible load distribution under the blank holder.From earlier tests experience [MED 00a, 00b], [BOT 97], the draw depth as wellas the blank holder force at which local buckling occurs in this product wereapproximately known.The blanks were cold-rolled galvanised IF steel with 560 mm diameter and 0.80mm thickness. Only a small amount of lubricant (Quaker N6130) was applied asotherwise the time to pressing is known to become of significant influence [HAA00] and also disturbs the tests. The procedure was to apply some oil and then rub itof with a cloth until the surface appears matt. Experience of CRD&T at Corus showsthat this amounts to about 1.0 to 1.5 g/m
2
.The buckling waves were measured on a 3D coordinate measuring machine(CMM), Mitutoyo BH506 and corrected for the slight off-centre of the specimen bythe proprietary Scan pack software. Then they were filtered, to remove longwavelength shape defects that were not of interest in this research. This filtering wasdone by means of Fourier analysis and subsequent inverse Fourier analysis on partof the spectrum in a CRD&T written code.The experimental results are recapitulated in Tables 1 to 3 and compared withthose obtained through numerical simulations.
3. FEM Simulation
The numerical simulation has been carried out using our DiekA code [DIE 00],which has been dedicated to the simulation of forming processes. In thesesimulations, large deformations, history dependent material behaviour, contact phenomena and numerical techniques play an essential role. It should be stressed

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