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How Tafseer is Performed

How Tafseer is Performed

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03/18/2014

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Islaam.com
Qur'an
How Tafseer is Performed?
Imam Ibn Taymiyyah
An Introduction to the Principles of Tafseer
\u00a9 1993 al-Hidaayah
http://islaam.com//Article.aspx?id=29

If you ask what is the best method oftafsee r, the answer is that the best way is to explain the
Qur\u2019aan through the Qur\u2019aan. For, what the Qur\u2019aan alludes to at one place is explained at the
other, and what it says in brief on one occasion is elaborated upon at the other. But if this does
not help you, you should turn to thesunna h, because thesunna h explains and elucidates the
Qur\u2019aan. Imaam Abu `Abd Allaah Muhammad ibn Idrees al-Shaafi`ee has said: "All that the
Prophet, peace be upon him, has said is what he has derived from the Qur\u2019aan." Allaah has said:

"We have sent down to you the book in truth that you may judge between men,
as Allaah guides you; so don\u2019t be an advocate for those who betray their
trust." [al-Qur\u2019aan, 4:105]

"We have sent down to you the message that you may explain clearly to people
what has been sent to them, and that they think over it." [16:44]

"We sent down the Book to you for the express purpose that you should make
clear to them those things in which they differ, and that it should be a guide and
a mercy to those who believe." [16:64]

This is why the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: "Know that I have been given the
Qur\u2019aan and something like it"[Ahm ad, Musnad, Vol. IV 131; Abu Dawood, Sunan, Sunnah, 5],

namely theSunn ah. In fact, theSunn ah, too has been given to him through wahy as the Qur\u2019aan, except that it has not been recited to him as the Qur\u2019aan. Imaam al-Shaafi`ee and other scholars have advanced a number of arguments in support of this point; but this is not the place to quote them. [For discussion see al-Shaafi`ee, al-Risaalah]

In order to understand the Qur\u2019aan, you should first look to the Qur\u2019aan itself. If that does not
help, then turn to theSunn ah. The Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) sent Mu`aadh

(radiyallaahu `anhu) to Yemen and asked him: "How will you judge the cases (that come to
you)?" He replied: "I will judge according to the Book of Allaah". "But if you do not get anything
there, what will you do?", the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) asked. He said: "I will refer
to the sunnah of the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam)". "But if you do not get it even there,
what will you do?", the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) asked again. He replied: "I will
exercise my judgment." Hearing this the Prophet (sallallaahu `alayhi wa sallam) patted Mu`aadh
(radiyallaahu `anhu) on the shoulder and said: "Praise be to Allaah who has guided the
Messenger of His Messenger to what pleases His Messenger."This hadeeth has been reported

in theMusna d andSuna n collections ofhadee th with a goodisnaa d. [Ahmad,Musna d V:230,
236, 242; al-Daarimee,Suna n,Muqa ddima h, 30; al-Tirmidhee,Suna n,Ahkaa m, 3; Abu Dawood,
Sunan, Adhiyah, 11.]
When you do not get any help from the Qur\u2019aan or theSunn ah, turn to the words of the

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