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11/24/2011

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Department of Electronics Engineering
Laboratory Manual
for

B. Tech. (Electronics), III Year (V – Semester) (2011 – 2012
)
Lab Course EL 392 ( Communication Lab. – I)
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

1.

Harmonic Analysis2.

AM & Demodulation3.

Frequency Modulation & Demodulation4.

Transmission Lines5.

Envelop Detector 6.

PWM7.

Sampling & Re-construction8.

Study of Pulse-position modulation& Demodulation
Compiled by
B. Sc. Engg (AMU)., MIETE (India), Ex-MIEEE (USA)
J. Technical OfficerDepartment of Electronics Engineering,AMU, Aligarh – 202 002
Email:- engineer_amu@ymail.comWebsite:-

http://mhakhan.tripod.com/lab.html

Experiment # 01 (WF Analysis)
Object:-
(a) Generate a symmetrical Square wave of lowest frequency using wave-form generator section of the kit supplied. Measure its Amplitude & Frequency.(b) Determine the amplitudes & frequencies of the first eight harmonics of the wave-formgenerated in part (a) above, using the same kit.
Apparatus / Kit
used:- 1. Sigma Harmonic Analyzer Trainer Kit Model COM-118.2. 20 MHz Dual Trace CRO3. An AF Sine-wave Signal Generator (optional)
Experimental setup:-Procedure :-
Set: Power switch to “ON” position,Mode select switch to “NORMAL” position,
1. Square-wave generation section:-
Set Sliders # 1 to 8 Upwards and Sliders # 9 to 16 DownwardsMeasure the ranges available for the amplitude and frequency of the symmetrical square wavegenerated as above. Adjust its amplitude to 4.0 V
p-p
and & frequency around150 Hz.
2. Measurement of harmonics of the symmetrical square wave generated as above
:-1.

Adjust the amplitude of Sine-wave generator to slightly more than that of sq-wave & itsfrequency to much lower than that of sq-wave.2.

Connect the above-adjusted sine-wave to one input of the Balanced modulator and thegenerated sq-wave to another input.3.

Connect the output of BM to the input of the LPF and observe its second output on theCRO.4.

Now increase the frequency of the sine-wave gradually until a vertical oscillation isobserved on the CRO screen. Adjust this frequency very finely to get maximum vertical

Er. Muhammad Hadi Ali Khan Page 3 http://mhakhan.tripod.com/lab.htmlshift of oscillation, and measure the magnitude of this maximum vertical shift of oscillationin mV which is nothing but the relative amplitude of the harmonic.5.

Now, measure the frequency of sine-wave at this setting which will give the order of thatharmonic (n). n = {sine-wave frequency / sqare-wave frequency}6.

Increase further the sine-wave frequency and check for vertical oscillation at frequenciesequal to the twice, thrice, 4-times, of sq-wave frequency, and so on7.

Whenever vertical oscillation is observed, measure its amplitude, and the freq of sine-wave.Tabulate your observations as shown in the following observation-table:-
Observations:-
Wave-form generated:- Symmetrical Square waveAmplitude of the symmetrical Square wave = -------- Volts
p-p

Frequency of the symmetrical Square wave = ----------- Hz (adjusted)
S.No.frequency of Sine-wave (Hz)
Relative Amplitudeof the Harmonic(mV)
Remarks
1.

1
st
harmonic present2.

2
nd
harmonic absent3.

3
rd
harmonic present4.

4
th
harmonic absent5.

5
th
harmonic present6.

6
th
harmonic absent7.

7
th
harmonic present8.

8
th
harmonic absentPlot the Spectrum of the above signal.