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Software Life Cycle Models

Software Life Cycle Models

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Published by Darwin V Tomy
The large and growing body of software development organizations implement process methodologies. Many of them are in the defense industry, which in the U.S. requires a rating based on 'process models' to obtain contracts.

The international standard for describing the method of selecting, implementing and monitoring the life cycle for software is ISO/IEC 12207.

A decades-long goal has been to find repeatable, predictable processes that improve productivity and quality. Some try to systematize or formalize the seemingly unruly task of writing software. Others apply project management techniques to writing software. Without project management, software projects can easily be delivered late or over budget. With large numbers of software projects not meeting their expectations in terms of functionality, cost, or delivery schedule, effective project management appears to be lacking.

Organizations may create a Software Engineering Process Group (SEPG), which is the focal point for process improvement. Composed of line practitioners who have varied skills, the group is at the center of the collaborative effort of everyone in the organization who is involved with software engineering process improvement.
The large and growing body of software development organizations implement process methodologies. Many of them are in the defense industry, which in the U.S. requires a rating based on 'process models' to obtain contracts.

The international standard for describing the method of selecting, implementing and monitoring the life cycle for software is ISO/IEC 12207.

A decades-long goal has been to find repeatable, predictable processes that improve productivity and quality. Some try to systematize or formalize the seemingly unruly task of writing software. Others apply project management techniques to writing software. Without project management, software projects can easily be delivered late or over budget. With large numbers of software projects not meeting their expectations in terms of functionality, cost, or delivery schedule, effective project management appears to be lacking.

Organizations may create a Software Engineering Process Group (SEPG), which is the focal point for process improvement. Composed of line practitioners who have varied skills, the group is at the center of the collaborative effort of everyone in the organization who is involved with software engineering process improvement.

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Published by: Darwin V Tomy on Nov 24, 2011
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INDEXCONTENTS
PAGE NO
 1.1 INTRODUCTION 21.2 PROCESS DESCRIPTIONS
(Figure 1-01)
31.3 LIFE CYCLE MODELS
(Figure 1-02)
51.3.1
Build
-
and
-
fix model
(Figure 1-03) 7
1.3.2
Waterfall model
(Figure 1-04) 9
1.3.3
V
-
Shaped Model
(Figure 1-05) 11
1.3.4
Spiral model
(Figure 1-06) 13
1.3.5
Sawtooth model
(Figure 1-07) 15
1.3.6
Sharktooth Model
(Figure 1-08) 17
1.3.7
Unified Software Development Process (Figure 1-09) 19
1.3.8
Issue-Based Life Cycle Model (Figure 1-10) 21
 1.4 REFERENCE
 
 
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Introduction
 
In the early days of computing, software was developed by many individualsfollowing their own methods. Often, the
methods employed some form of “codeand fix”, where the programmer writes som
e code and then tests it to see how itperforms. The programmer then uses the test results to modify or fix the code andtests again. Programmers were able to get by with this type of development for tworeasons. First, no better way had been developed, and second, software was not thatcomplex. As software grew more complicated and organizations relied oncomputers for more of their operations, including finances and even human lives,this laissez faire approach to programming gave way to more disciplined methods.The overall framework in which software is conceived, developed, and maintainedis known as the Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC). This chapter discussesthe various types of SDLCs, along with their advantages and disadvantages.A life cycle model defines the phases, milestones, deliverables, and evaluationcriteria of the software development process. These form the basis of the work breakdown structure (WBS), used for project planning and management.
 
 
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3
Process Description
 
Life cycles are usually referred to as models, and define the phases of asoftware development effort. Simple life cycles may have only three phases,Design, Development, and Maintenance; while complex life cycles may include 20or more phases. Generally, software life cycles include the phases shown in Figure1-01.
These “classic” phases are often divided into additional
phases to allow betterdefinition and control of the development process. They may also be repeated in aniterative manner, depending on the software complexity and the life cycle modelused. Most life cycle phases are identical or similar to the common phasesidentified above and the following general descriptions will apply across mostmodels. Note that single phases are composed of multiple activities.The
 Requirements Phas
e consists of analyzing the problem or need for which thesoftware is being developed. This analysis, a systems engineering activity, developsand specifies requirements, stating what the software must do. In addition to statedrequirements, requirements are derived from higher-level requirements andstatements of need.In the
 Design Phase
the software structure is defined. Technical approaches arechosen and problems are solved conceptually. This phase is often divided into aPreliminary Design Phase and a Detailed Design Phase. In the preliminary designthe initial software architecture is developed. In the detailed design, functionalmodules are defined, along with user interfaces and interfaces between modules.The
 Implementation Phase
(sometimes called the Development Phase) iswhere the programming or coding takes place to execute the software design. This
Requirements
 
Design
 
Implementation
 
Testing
 
Deployment
 
Maintenance
 

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