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Drilling Fluids

Drilling Fluids

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Khawaja Arslan Ahmed on Nov 24, 2011
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11/27/2013

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(21)
CHAPTER
V
DRILLINGFLUIDS
(22)
,/
5.1Functionofdrillingfluids
Adrillingfluidisusedtocarryoutthefollowingfunctionstheseare:e,
5.1.1Coolthe
drUt
bitIlIId
lubricate
itsteeth
Oneoftheprimefunctions
0
f
drillingfluidormud
is
tocoolthe
drill
bi
t
andlubricate
its
teeth.Thedrillingactionrequiresaconsiderableamountofmechanicalenergyinthefonnofweightonbit,rotation
and
bydraulicenergy.Alargeproportionof
this
energy
is
dissipatedasheat,whichmustberemovedtoaUowthedrillbittofunctionproperly.Thedrillingfluidalso
helps
remove
drillcuttingsfromthe
spacesbetweenthe
teethofthebit,
therebypreventingbitballing.
23)
,4)
5.1.2lubriClllel1li4coolthedrillstring.
u
»>:
Arotarydrillstringgeneratesaconsiderableamountofheatwhichmustbedissipatedoutsidethehole.Themudhelpstocoolthe
<hi
IIstringbyabsorbingthisheatandreleasingit,byconvectionandradiation,totheairsurroundingthesurfacep:ittanks.Themuda1so,provideslubrication
by
reducingfrictionbetweendrillstringandborehole
walls.
Lubrication
is
normallyachievedbytheadditionofbentonite,oil,graphiteetc.
5.1.3Control(ormationpressure
Forsafedrilling,highformationpressuresmustbecontainedwithintheholetopreventdamagetoequipmentandinjury
to
personnel.'Hinmudachievesthisbyprovidingahydrostaticpressurejustgreaterthantheformationpressure.Foreffectivedrilling,the(fifferencebetweenthehydrostaticandformationpressuresshouldbezero.
In,
practice,anoverbalanceof100
to
200psi(tripmargin)isnormallyusedtoprovideanadequatesafeguardagainstwellkick.Thepressureoverbalance1Ssometimesreferred
to
aschipholddownpressure(CHOP),anditsvaluedirectlyinfluencespenetrationrate.
In
general,penetrationrate
decreasesastheCHOPincreases.Whenan
abnormallypressuredformation
is
encountered,theCHOPbecomesnegativeandasuddenincrease
in
penetrationrateisobserved.ThisisnonnaLlytakenasanindicationofawel1kick.-
5.1.4Carry
cuttingsouto(thehole,
,
Foreffectivedrilling,cuttingsgeneratedbythebitmustberemovedimmediately.Thedrillingmudcarriesthesecuttingsuptheholeandtothesurface,tobeseparatedfromthemud.Hence,mudmustalsoprocessthenecessarypropertiestoallowcuttingstobeseparatedatthesurfaceandtoberecirculated.Thecarryingcapacityofmuddependsonseveralfactors,includingannularvelocityplasticviscosityandyieldpointofthemudandslipvelocityof
the
drilling.cuttings.
In
general,theresultantvelocity(orliftvelocity,Va,andslipvelocity,Vs.
By
useofthePowerLawmodel,theslipvelocityofcuttingsisgivenbythefollowingformula:
 
126
ChapterV
175D
p
(p
p_
p",)O.6t51_.
V.
I
=-_
.33.3E}.3]]
ft/
rnm
Pm
fJ
c
Where:
Dp
=
particlediameter
(in).
pp
=
densityofparticle(cuttings).
pm
=
densityof
mud,
ppg
ue
=
effectivemudviscosity(cp),Also,annularvelocity,Va,issimplythevolumeflowratedivided
by
theannulararealiftvelocity,Ve,isgivenby:(1)Vc=VaVs,Themudmustalsobecapableofkeepingthecuttings
in
suspensionwhencirculationisstopped,topreventthemfromaccumulatingonthebottomoftheholecausingpipesticking.
..,.
5.1.5Stabilizethe
well
boretoprevent
it
(rom
c"ving~i"
Theformationofagoodmudcakehelpstostabilizethewallsoftheplastertointeriorhousewalls.Thepressuredifferentialbetweenthehydrostaticpressureofmudandthat
ofthe
boreholestable.Shalestabilityislargelydependentonthetype
of
mud
used.
At
last,
it
should
benotedthatthebestwaytokeepaholestableis.toreducethetimeduringwhichtheholeiskeptopen.
5.1.6
Help
bl
the
evaluatio.n
andinterpretationofwelllogs
Wirelinelogsarerun
in
themud-filledholes
in
ordertoascertaintheexistenceandsizeofhydrocarbonzones.Openholelogsarealsoruntodetermineporosity,boundariesbetweenformations,locationsofgeopressured(orabnormallypressured)formationsandthesiteforthenextwell.Hence,thedrillingmudmustpossesssuchpropertiesthat
it
win
aidtheproductionofgoodlogs.
5.1.7Limitingcol'i'osionofdrillingequipmen.t
Thedrillingfluid
in
mostcases
will
havewaterthatcontainsdissolvedsaltsas
its
baseliquid.Thisservesasamedium
in
whichcorrosiontakesplace,Ifcorrosionissuspected,thenthecause
should.
bedeterminedandsteps
taken
topreventdamage-oftheequipment.I~beenfoundthatinmudscontaining
oil
asthe
continuous
phase,
little
ornocorrosion
occ~,
5.2
Composition
ofdriJling
tluids
Any
drillingfluidormudiscomposedofthefollowing:
25
Liqu.id:
1.
Water2.Oil
2!l
Solids:
3..
Inert,non-reactive
component.b.Sandsilica,
limestone,chert,
dolomite.etc.c.Barite..-
Dr.
M.S.
Far.hat
 
DrillingFluids
127
~ColloidalsutaHparticlesize;'
(0\\~~~
(e
-&..IJ:J.~
~!.
3.
Non-swellingclays-illite,kaolinite.b.Swelling.cley-bentonite,
\
i!S.
Miscellaneous
tldrllfer,
lost
circulationmfJte,.-ial.
dissolvedsolids,jilJr-atereducingagent5,surfactantsandotherchemicals.
5.3
:
TypesofdrUlingfluids
Three
types
ofdrillingmudareincommonuse:1)
WateT
basemuds,
2)Oilbasemuds,
3)Emulsionmuds.
15
5.3.1Water-BaseMuds
Waterbasemudsconsistsoffourcomponents:(1)liquid
water
(whichisthecontinuousphaseandisusedtorovideiniti.alvlscosity):(2)reactivefractions
to
provide
further,viscosity
andyieldpoint;(3)
inertctions
to
p:I'OVldethe
requiredmud
weight;
and(4)chemicaladditivestocontrol
mud
properties.Components(2)and(3)representthesolidfractionofmud;thereactivefractionsofmudarealwayslowgravitysolids,whiletheinertftactionscanbeloworhi~gravitYsolids.,Thereactivefractionofawaterbasemudconsistsofclayssuchasbentoniteandartapulgite,Theinertsolidsincludesand,barite,limestones,chert,etc.5.3.1.1Reactivefractionofmudsolids
~fl
I
'c
(N
cit:.
Clays(orlowgravityreactivesolids)areaddedtowater
t
pTe;entheviscosityandyieldpointpropertiesnecessaryto
lift
thedrillcuttings.
Of
tokeep
"'__tbem
insuspension(seeEquation1).ThemechanismbywhichhighviscosityandyieldpointaredevelopedisverycomplexandisDotyetcompletelyunderstood.11isrelated
to'
theelectrostaticfomestharaottoholdthemtogetherwhentheyaredispersed
in
water.Therearetwotypesofclaycurrentlyinuse
for
makingwater-base
muds:.
1.Bentoniticday:thisisamemberofthemontmorillonite(smectite)groupofclays.andcanonlybeusedwith
fresh
watersincehighviscosityandyieldpointdonotdevelopinsaltwater..2.Attapulgite(orsaltgel):thisisamemberofthepalygorskitegroupofclays.and
has
theabilitytodeveloptherequired
high
viscosityinbothfreshandsaltwater.
~Q.r
the
)lid
I
s
\1d
es
be
~e
Ie
11
s5.3.1.2Natu.ralofclaysAPIdefinesclaysasnatural,earthy,fine-grainedmaterials
that:
developplasticitywhenwet.
clays
formfromthechemicalweatheringofigneousandmetamorphicrocks.Themajorsourceofclaysusedcommerciallyisvolcanic-ash,theglassycamp-anentofwhichweathersveryreadily,usuallytobentonite.Ashlayersoccurinterstratifiedwithothersedimentaryrocks,andareeasilyminedbyopencastmethods.ThefamousWyomingbentoniteissuchaweatheredashlayer.Thecharacteristicfeatureofclaymineralsis
that
theypossessanatomicstructure
in
whichtheatomsformlayers,Thereare.threetypesofatomic
layers
thatgiveclaystheirspecialproperties:
DI'
M.S,Fa['ahat

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