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Chuyen de Bien Doi Bieu Thuc Dai So

# Chuyen de Bien Doi Bieu Thuc Dai So

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03/18/2014

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Chuy\u00aan \u00ae\u00d2 b\u00e5i d\u00ecng Hsg m\u00abn to\u00b8n 8 \u2013 ph\u00c7n \u00ae\u00b9i s\u00e8
Chuy\u00aan \u00ae\u00d2 2
Bi\u00d5n \u00ae\u00e6i bi\u00d3u th\u00f8c \u00ae\u00b9i s\u00e8
a \u2013 bi\u00d3n \u00ae\u00e6i bi\u00d3u th\u00f8c nguy\u00aan
I. M\u00e9t s\u00e8 h\u00bbng \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c c\u00ac b\u00b6n
1. (a\u00b1 b)2 = a2\u00b1 2ab + b2 ;
(a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2ab + 2bc + 2ca ;
2
1
2
n
(a a ... a )
+ ++
=
=
\ue000
\ue000 \ue000\ue000 \ue000
\ue000
\ue000 \ue000
\ue000
\ue000 \ue000
\ue000 \ue000
2
2
2
1
2
n
1 2
1 3
1 n
2 3
2 n
n1 n
a a ... a 2(aa aa ...aa aa ... aa ... a a );
2. (a\ue001 b)3 = a3\ue001 3a2b + 3ab2\ue001 b3 = a3\ue001 b3\ue001 3ab(a\ue001 b);
(a\ue001 b)4 = a4\ue001 4a3b + 6a2b2\ue001 4ab3 + b4 ;

3. a2 \u2013 b2 = (a \u2013 b)(a + b) ;
a3 \u2013 b3 = (a \u2013 b)(a2 + ab + b2) ;
an \u2013 bn = (a \u2013 b)(an\u20131 + an\u20132b + an\u20133b2 + \u2026 + abn\u20132 + bn\u20131) ;

4. a3 + b3 = (a + b)(a2 \u2013 ab + b2)
a5 + b5 = (a + b)(a4 \u2013 a3b + a2b2 \u2013 ab3 + b5) ;
a2k + 1 + b2k + 1 = (a + b)(a2k \u2013 a2k \u2013 1b + a2k \u2013 2b2 \u2013 \u2026 + a2b2k \u2013 2 \u2013 ab2k \u2013 1

+b2k );
II. B\u00b6ng c\u00b8c h\u00d6 s\u00e8 trong khai tri\u00d3n (a + b)n \u2013 Tam gi\u00b8c Pascal
\u00a7\u00d8nh

1
D\u00dfng 1 (n =
1)

1
1
D\u00dfng 2 (n =
2)
1
2
1
D\u00dfng 3 (n =
3)
1
3
3
1
D\u00dfng 4 (n =
4)
1
4
6
4
1
D\u00dfng 5 (n =
5)
1
5
10
10
5
1

Trong tam gi\u00b8c n\u00b5y, hai c\u00b9nh b\u00aan g\u00e5m c\u00b8c s\u00e8 1 ; d\u00dfng k + 1 \u00ae\u00eec th\u00b5nh l\u00cbp t\u00f5 d\u00dfng k (k\u2265 1), ch\u00bcng h\u00b9n \u00eb d\u00dfng 2 ta c\u00e3 2 = 1 + 1, \u00eb d\u00dfng 3 ta c\u00e3 3 = 2 + 1, 3 = 1 + 2, \u00eb d\u00dfng 4 ta c\u00e3 4 = 1 + 3, 6 = 3 + 3, 4 = 3 + 1, \u2026Khai tri\u00d3n (x + y)n th\u00b5nh t\u00e6ng th\u00d7 c\u00b8c h\u00d6 s\u00e8 c\u00f1a c\u00b8c h\u00b9ng t\u00f6 l\u00b5 c\u00b8c s\u00e8 trong d\u00dfng th\u00f8 n c\u00f1a b\u00b6ng tr\u00aan. Ng\u00eai ta g\u00e4i b\u00b6ng tr\u00aan l\u00b5 tam gi\u00b8c Pascal, n\u00e3 th\u00eang \u00ae\u00eec s\u00f6 d\u00f4ng khi n kh\u00abng qu\u00b8 l\u00edn. Ch\u00bcng h\u00b9n, v\u00edi n = 4 th\u00d7 :

(a + b)4 = a4 + 4a3b + 6a2b2 + 4ab3 + b4
bi\u00aan so\u00b9n : Tr\u00c7n Ng\u00e4c \u00a7\u00b9i \u2013 thcs th\u00f4y ph\u00f3c
1
Chuy\u00aan \u00ae\u00d2 b\u00e5i d\u00ecng Hsg m\u00abn to\u00b8n 8 \u2013 ph\u00c7n \u00ae\u00b9i s\u00e8
v\u00b5 v\u00edi n = 5 th\u00d7 :
(a + b)5 = a5 + 5a4b + 10a3b2 + 10a2b3 + 10ab4 + b5
II. C\u00b8c v\u00dd d\u00f4
V\u00dd d\u00f4 1. \u00a7\u00acn gi\u00b6n bi\u00d3u th\u00f8c sau :
A = (x + y + z)3 \u2013 (x + y \u2013 z)3 \u2013 (y + z \u2013 x)3 \u2013 (z + x \u2013 y)3.
L\u00eai gi\u00b6i
A = [(x + y) + z]3 \u2013 [(x + y) \u2013 z]3 \u2013 [z \u2013 (x \u2013 y)]3 \u2013 [z + (x \u2013 y)]3
= [(x + y)3 + 3(x + y)2z + 3(x + y)z2 + z3] \u2013 [(x + y)3 \u2013 3(x + y)2z
+ 3(x + y)z2 \u2013 z3] \u2013
\u2013 [z3 \u2013 3z2(x \u2013 y) + 3z(x \u2013 y)2 \u2013 (x \u2013 y)3] \u2013 [z3 + 3z2(x \u2013 y) + 3z(x \u2013
y)2 + (x \u2013 y)3]
= 6(x + y)2z \u2013 6z(x \u2013 y)2 = 24xyz
V\u00dd d\u00f4 2. Cho x + y = a, xy = b (a2\u2265 4b). T\u00ddnh gi\u00b8 tr\u00de c\u00f1a c\u00b8c bi\u00d3u
th\u00f8c sau :
a) x2 + y2 ;
b) x3 + y3 ;
c) x4 + y4 ;
d) x5 + y5
L\u00eai gi\u00b6i

a) x2 + y2 = (x + y)2 \u2013 2xy = a2 \u2013 2b
b) x3 + y3 = (x + y)3 \u2013 3xy(x + y) = a3 \u2013 3ab
c) x4 + y4 = (x2 + y2)2 \u2013 2x2y2 = (a2 \u2013 2b)2 \u2013 2b2 = a4 \u2013 4a2b + 2b2
d) (x2 + y2)(x3 + y3) = x5 + x2y3 + x3y2 + y5 = (x5 + y5) + x2y2(x + y)

Hay : (a2 \u2013 2b)(a3 \u2013 3ab) = (x5 + y5) + ab2\u21d2 x5 + y5 = a5 \u2013 5a3b +
5ab2
Ch\u00f3 \u00fd : a6 + b6 = (a2)3 + (b2)3 = (a3)2 + (b3)2
a7 + b7 = (a3 + b3)(a4 + b4) \u2013 a3b3(a + b)
= (a2 + b2)(a5 + b5) \u2013 a2b2(a3 + b3)

V\u00dd d\u00f4 3. Ch\u00f8ng minh c\u00b8c h\u00bbng \u00ae\u00bcng th\u00f8c :
a) a3 + b3 + c3 \u2013 3abc = (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 \u2013 ab \u2013 bc \u2013 ca) ;
b) (a + b + c)3 \u2013 a3 \u2013 b3 \u2013 c3 = 3(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)

L\u00eai gi\u00b6i

a) a3 + b3 + c3 \u2013 3abc = (a + b)3 + c3 \u2013 3abc \u2013 3a2b \u2013 3ab2
= (a + b + c)[(a + b)2 \u2013 (a + b)c + c2] \u2013 3ab(a + b + c)
= (a + b + c) [(a + b)2 \u2013 (a + b)c + c2 \u2013 3ab]
= (a + b + c)(a2 + b2 + c2 \u2013 ab \u2013 bc \u2013 ca)

b) (a + b + c)3 \u2013 a3 \u2013 b3 \u2013 c3 = [(a + b + c)3 \u2013 a3] \u2013 (b3 + c3)
= (b + c)[(a + b + c)2 + (a + b + c)a + a2] \u2013 (b + c)(b2 \u2013 bc + c2)
= (b + c)(3a2 + 3ab + 3bc + 3ca) = 3(b + c)[a(a + b) + c(a + b)]
= 3(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)

V\u00dd d\u00f4 4. Ph\u00a9n t\u00ddch bi\u00d3u th\u00f8c sau th\u00b5nh nh\u00a9n t\u00f6 :
bi\u00aan so\u00b9n : Tr\u00c7n Ng\u00e4c \u00a7\u00b9i \u2013 thcs th\u00f4y ph\u00f3c
2
Chuy\u00aan \u00ae\u00d2 b\u00e5i d\u00ecng Hsg m\u00abn to\u00b8n 8 \u2013 ph\u00c7n \u00ae\u00b9i s\u00e8
A = x3 \u2013 3(a2 + b2)x + 2(a3 + b3)
L\u00eai gi\u00b6i
\u00a7\u00c6t S = a + b v\u00b5 P = ab, th\u00d7 a2 + b2 =
2
S 2P
-;a3 +b3 =
3
S 3SP
-
.
V\u00d7 v\u00cby :
A = x3 \u2013 3(2
S 2P
-)x + 2(3
S 3SP
-
)=
3
3
2
3
(x S ) (3Sx 3S ) (6Px 6SP)
-
-
-
+
-
=
2
2
2
(x S)(x Sx S ) 3S (x S) 6P(x S)
-
++ -
- +
-
=
2
2
(x S)(x Sx 2S 6P)
-
+ -
+
= (x \u2013 a \u2013 b)[x2 + (a + b)x \u2013 2(a + b)2 + 6ab]

= (x \u2013 a \u2013 b)[x2 + (a + b)x \u2013 2(a2
V\u00dd d\u00f4 5. Cho x + y + z = 0. Ch\u00f8ng minh r\u00bbng : 2(x5 + y5 + z5) =
5xyz(x2 + y2 + z2)

L\u00eai gi\u00b6i

V\u00d7 x + y + z = 0 n\u00aan x + y = \u2013z\u21d2 (x + y)3 = \u2013z3
Hay x3 + y3 + 3xy(x + y) = \u2013z3\u21d2 3xyz = x3 + y3 + z3
Do \u00ae\u00e3 : 3xyz(x2 + y2 + z2) = (x3 + y3 + z3)(x2 + y2 + z2)

= x5 + y5 + z5 + x3(y2 + z2) + y3(z2 + x2) +
z3(x2 + y2)
M\u00b5 x2 + y2 = (x + y)2 \u2013 2xy = z2 \u2013 2xy (v\u00d7 x + y = \u2013z). T\u00acng t\u00f9 :
y2 + z2 = x2 \u2013 2yz ; z2 + x2 = y2 \u2013 2zx.
V\u00d7 v\u00cby : 3xyz(x2 + y2 + z2) = x5 + y5 + z5 + x3(x2 \u2013 2yz) + y3(y2 \u2013
2zx) + z3(z3 \u2013 2xy)
= 2(x5 + y5 + z5) \u2013 2xyz(x2 + y2 + z2)
Suy ra : 2(x5 + y5 + z5) = 5xyz(x2 + y2 + z2) (\u00aepcm)
B\u00b5i t\u00cbp

1. Ph\u00a9n t\u00ddch c\u00b8c \u00aea th\u00f8c sau th\u00b5nh nh\u00a9n t\u00f6 :
a) x3 + 4x2 \u2013 29x + 24 ;
b) x4 + 6x3 + 7x2 \u2013 6x + 1 ;
c) (x2 \u2013 x + 2)2 + (x \u2013 2)2 ;
d) 6x5 + 15x4 + 20x3 + 15x2 + 6x + 1 ;
e) x6 + 3x5 + 4x4 + 4x3 + 4x2 + 3x + 1.

2. Ph\u00a9n t\u00ddch c\u00b8c \u00aea th\u00f8c sau th\u00b5nh nh\u00a9n t\u00f6 :
a) x8 + x4 + 1;
b) x10 +x5 + 1;
c) x12 + 1 ;

3. Ph\u00a9n t\u00ddch c\u00b8c \u00aea th\u00f8c sau th\u00b5nh nh\u00a9n t\u00f6 :
a) (x + y + z)3 \u2013 x3 \u2013 y3 \u2013 z3 ;
b) (x + y + z)5 \u2013 x5 \u2013 y5 \u2013 z5.

bi\u00aan so\u00b9n : Tr\u00c7n Ng\u00e4c \u00a7\u00b9i \u2013 thcs th\u00f4y ph\u00f3c
3