The total energy consumption of a vehicle is proportional to its total driving resistance
which is defined as the sum of rolling, accelerating and gradient resistances of these, the
only element not affected by mass, is air resistance; weight reduction therefore yields a
significant reduction in power consumption. One of the leading strategies is based on
reduction in power consumption. One of the leading strategies is based on reducing the
mass of the car by the consistence use and optimum application of lightweight
The aim of lightweight construction weight. While simultaneously using all materials
optimally. How're, the desire for lightweight construction at all cost is not everything the
const involved in the material and process used most be considered as well.
Ecological demands on vehicles including low fuel consumption low emissions and
better recycling capability are becoming more and more important in the eyes of the
customer. Accordingly several strategies are being developed that will significantly
improve the environmental performance of tomorrows motor vehicle.
The heaviest component that logically attracts most attention is the body and chassis.
Today aluminium use in the chassis is already state of the art. E.g. in the areas of steering,
sub frames and axle supports. For the body the starting point for experiment was simply
substituted by aluminium. This produced 66% weight reduction for similar was thickness
but did not gave the necessary stiffness and vehicle functional performance. A completely
new construction was needed with the design optimized from the start for aluminium.
This concept is called as Aluminium space frame or ASF.
ALUMINIUM SPACE FRAME
By many great variety of aluminium semi-finished product types and therefore
construction possibilities, the weight was reduced by approximately 40% compared with
conventional steel bodied and the stiffness which is vital to high quality and comfort, was
This lightweight body is the starting point of a new overall technological concept geared
to reversing the weight increase spiral. The first step in this concept is initially associated
with higher cost. However, as weight drops further, compensating savings become
available in the areas of engine, gearbox, and chassis and packaging. There is a break-
even point in this reduction; therefore costs can be deduced to the point where the weight
objective is achieved.
The ASF structure is similar to lattice framework with vacural pressure die-cast parts as
nodular elements linked with each other via hollow straight of curved extruded profile
sections acting as support beams. Molded plants are integrated into this structure as
surface closing parts, which add to the total stiffness, on account of their shear surface
By integrating material design with process design through computational modeling, we
can select the optimum alloy to maximize formability of the part. When we run the
model, we can do multiple iterations, trying a number of different alloys. "This is
possible for two reasons, both of which depend on advanced scientific computing.
Aluminium - a mathematical description that relates the microstructure of the metal to
how it behaves when formed into a manufactured product.
Allowed it to refine this model to its current high degree of accuracy. "This is one of its
strengths it have ability with simulations to describe all complex loading conditions."
Supercomputing, it gives fast turnaround, makes it feasible to adjust parameters and look
at multiple possibilities,
Providing design flexibility that wouldn't otherwise be available. "With the Cray,"
. The turnaround is six times faster than on our own workstations, and this is critical in
the design stage, where you need to make changes quickly."
Simply replacing sheet steel with aluminium sheet metal for the hood, tailboard, doors
and other exteriors shell parts presents for the car manufacturers, the simplest surest and
cheapest option to reduce the total vehicle weight, to achieve either improved driving
characteristics of reduced fuel consumption of both.
Aluminium is particular has got the following properties due to which it is used:
Heat-hardenable alloys of group 6000 are used for the semifinished product types, which
represent a good compromise between firmness deformation characteristics and which
are used extensively is Europe and USA. Depending upon the heat treatment applied, the
mechanical properties to the semi-finished products can be adjusted over a large range
between high firmness and high extension values. Moreover, the use of these alloys
improves weight saving because one can reduce the wall thickness without compromising
the strength of the material.
Aluminium ads its own complications to the joining techniques used in the body
compared with the traditional steel. The main techniques body is pulsed MIG welding,
self-pierce riverting, clinching, adhesive, bonding (for the wind screen and rear window)
and resistance spot welding.
Metal inert gas (MIG) welding uses an electric arc maintain between a consumable
electrode (filer wire) and the work piece in an atmosphere of inert gas. Automated
welding speeds are between 0.4 and 1.2 m/min. using conventional DC output supplies, a
sheet at least 1mm thick can be welding automatically with a machine guided MIG gun.
Sheet 1.5 mm thick and greater can be welded with manually guided MIG. The
equipment has been modified specially to achieve constant parameters.
Self-pierce reverting is the common substitute for resistance spot welding because the
joint strength is relatively insensitive to surface quality at comparable installation speed,
and the joint has excellent fatigue strength compared with other techniques.
Mechanical clinching, which is achieved local slitting and/or deformation is popular for
lower strength joints because it is quick and simple. It gives a joint without a support-
joining element. The clinch process is applied in a combined hub and intersperse action,
as well as forming by upsetting to achieve a frictional form closed joint.
When choosing materials, mechanical, physical and chemical properties are important
factors as well as sheer cost. In the past these have been considered mainly in terms of
their effects on the service and manufacturing characteristics. In future, however
recycling of material will assume a higher profile in customers mind. Consequently
special attention must to recycling oriented construction and the purposeful selection of
easily recyclable aluminium alloys.
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