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The Van Hiele Model of Geometric Thought1

The Van Hiele Model of Geometric Thought1



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The Van Hiele Model of Geometric Thought.

Two Dutch educators, Dina and Pierre van Hiele, suggested that children may learn
geometry along the lines of a structure for reasoning that they developed in the 1950s.
educators in the former Soviet Union learned of the van Hiele research and changed their
geometry curriculum in the 1960s. During the 1980s there was interest in the United States
in the van Hieles' contributions; the {\it Standards} of the National Council of Teachers of
Mathematics (1989) brought the van Hiele model of learning closer to implementation by
stressing the importance of sequential learning and an activity approach.
The van Hiele model asserts that the learner moves sequentially through five levels of
understanding. Different numbering systems are found in the literature but the van Hieles
spoke of levels 0 through 4.
Level 0 (Basic Level): Visualization
Students recognize figures as total entities (triangles, squares), but do not recognize
properties of these figures (right angles in a square).

Level 1: Analysis

Students analyze component parts of the figures (opposite angles of parallelograms are
congruent), but interrelationships between figures and properties cannot be explained.
Level 2: Informal Deduction
Students can establish interrelationships of properties within figures (in a quadrilateral,
opposite sides being parallel necessitates opposite angles being congruent) and among
figures (a square is a rectangle because it has all the properties of a rectangle). Informal
proofs can be followed but students do not see how the logical order could be altered nor
do they see how to construct a proof starting from different or unfamiliar premises.
Level 3: Deduction
At this level the significance of deduction as a way of establishing geometric theory within
an axiom system is understood. The interrelationship and role of undefined terms, axioms,
definitions, theorems and formal proof is seen. The possibility of developing a proof in
more than one way is seen.
Level 4: Rigor
Students at this level can compare different axiom systems (non-Euclidean geometry can
be studied). Geometry is seen in the abstract with a high degree of rigor, even without
concrete examples.
The majority of high school geometry courses is taught at Level 3. The van Hieles also
identified some characteristics of their model, including the fact that a person must
proceed through the levels in order, that the advancement from level to level depends more
on content and mode of instruction than on age, and that each level has its own vocabulary
and its own system of relations.The van Hieles proposed sequential phases of learning to
help students move from one level to another.
Phase 1: Inquiry/Information
At this initial stage the teacher and the students engage in conversation and activity about
the objects of study for this level. Observations are made, questions are raised, and level-
specific vocabulary is introduced.
Phase 2: Directed Orientation
The students explore the topic through materials that the teacher has carefully sequenced.
These activities should gradually reveal to the students the structures characteristic at this

Phase 3: Explication
Building on their previous experiences students express and exchange their emerging
views about the structures that have been observed. Other than to assist the students in
using accurate and appropriate vocabulary, the teacher's role is minimal. It is during this
phase that the level's system of relations begins to become apparent.
Phase 4: Free Orientation
Students encounter more complex tasks - tasks with many steps, tasks that can be
completed in more than one way, and open-ended tasks. They gain experience in resolving
problems on their own and make explicit many relations among the objects of the
structures being studied.
Phase 5: Integration
Students are able to internalize and unify relations into a new body of thought. The teacher
can assist in the synthesis by giving ''global surveys'' of what students already have

Reference: Teppo, Anne , "
Van Hiele Levels of Geometric Thought Revisited." ,
Mathematics Teacher , March 1991, pg 210-221.

Hai nh\u00e0 gi\u00e1o d\u1ee5c Dina v\u00e0 Pierre H\u00e0 lan chuy\u00ean ch\u1edf b\u1eb1ng xe t\u1ea3i Hiele, \u0111\u00e3 g\u1ee3i \u00fd r\u1eb1ng
con c\u00e1i c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 h\u1ecdc h\u00ecnh h\u1ecdc d\u1ecdc theo nh\u1eefng d\u00f2ng m\u1ed9t c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac (cho) l\u00fd lu\u1eadn m\u00e0 h\u1ecd ph\u00e1t
tri\u1ec3n trong 1950 S. nh\u00e0 gi\u00e1o d\u1ee5c trong c\u1ef1u Li\u00ean bang X\u00f4 vi\u1ebft \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u1ecdc (c\u1ee7a) nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u
Hiele xe t\u1ea3i v\u00e0 thay \u0111\u1ed5i ch\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh h\u1ecdc h\u00ecnh h\u1ecdc c\u1ee7a h\u1ecd v\u00e0o nh\u1eefng n\u0103m 1960. Trong
th\u1eddi gian 1980 S c\u00f3 s\u1ef1 quan t\u00e2m trong N\u01b0\u1edbc M\u1ef9 trong nh\u1eefng xe t\u1ea3i Hiele \ ' Nh\u1eefng \u0111\u00f3ng
g\u00f3p; {\\ N\u00f3 Nh\u1eefng ti\u00eau chu\u1ea9n} C\u1ee7a H\u1ed9i \u0111\u1ed3ng Qu\u1ed1c gia (c\u1ee7a) nh\u1eefng gi\u00e1o vi\u00ean (c\u1ee7a) To\u00e1n
h\u1ecdc (1989) \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c mang m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh Hiele xe t\u1ea3i c\u1ee7a vi\u1ec7c h\u1ecdc ng\u01b0\u1eddi \u0111\u00f3ng t\u1edbi s\u1ef1 thi h\u00e0nh b\u1eb1ng
vi\u1ec7c nh\u1ea5n m\u1ea1nh s\u1ef1 quan tr\u1ecdng (c\u1ee7a) s\u1ef1 h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng tu\u1ea7n t\u1ef1

M\u00f4 h\u00ecnh Hiele xe t\u1ea3i kh\u1eb3ng \u0111\u1ecbnh r\u1eb1ng h\u1ecdc vi\u00ean di chuy\u1ec3n tu\u1ea7n t\u1ef1 xuy\u00ean qua n\u0103m
m\u1ee9c c\u1ee7a vi\u1ec7c hi\u1ec3u. Nh\u1eefng h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng \u0111\u00e1nh s\u1ed1 Kh\u00e1c \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c t\u00ecm th\u1ea5y trong v\u0103n h\u1ecdc nh\u01b0ng xe
t\u1ea3i Hieles n\u00f3i v\u1ec1 nh\u1eefng m\u1ee9c T\u1eeb 0 \u0111\u1ebfn 4.

Ngang m\u1ee9c 0 (M\u1ee9c C\u01a1 b\u1ea3n): Tr\u1ef1c quan h\u00f3a.

Nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean \u0111o\u00e1n nh\u1eadn nh\u1eefng h\u00ecnh nh\u01b0 t\u1ed5ng s\u1ed1 th\u1ef1c th\u1ec3 (nh\u1eefng h\u00ecnh tam gi\u00e1c,
nh\u1eefng h\u00ecnh vu\u00f4ng), nh\u01b0ng kh\u00f4ng \u0111o\u00e1n nh\u1eadn nh\u1eefng thu\u1ed9c t\u00ednh (c\u1ee7a) nh\u1eefng h\u00ecnh n\u00e0y
(nh\u1eefng g\u00f3c vu\u00f4ng trong m\u1ed9t h\u00ecnh vu\u00f4ng).

Ngang m\u1ee9c 1: Ph\u00e2n t\u00edch.

Nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean ph\u00e2n t\u00edch nh\u1eefng linh ki\u1ec7n (c\u1ee7a) nh\u1eefng h\u00ecnh (nh\u1eefng g\u00f3c \u0111\u1ed1i \u0111\u1ec9nh (c\u1ee7a) nh\u1eefng h\u00ecnh b\u00ecnh h\u00e0nh ph\u00f9 h\u1ee3p), nh\u01b0ng nh\u1eefng s\u1ef1 quan h\u1ec7 l\u1eabn nhau gi\u1eefa nh\u1eefng h\u00ecnh v\u00e0 nh\u1eefng thu\u1ed9c t\u00ednh kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c gi\u1ea3i th\u00edch.

Ngang m\u1ee9c 2: Suy di\u1ec5n Kh\u00f4ng h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c.

Nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 thi\u1ebft l\u1eadp nh\u1eefng s\u1ef1 quan h\u1ec7 l\u1eabn nhau (c\u1ee7a) nh\u1eefng thu\u1ed9c t\u00ednh
b\u00ean trong nh\u1eefng h\u00ecnh (trong m\u1ed9t h\u00ecnh b\u1ed1n c\u1ea1nh, nh\u1eefng n\u1eeda kia song song c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i c\u00f3
nh\u1eefng g\u00f3c \u0111\u1ed1i \u0111\u1ec9nh ph\u00f9 h\u1ee3p) v\u00e0 trong s\u1ed1 nh\u1eefng h\u00ecnh (m\u1ed9t h\u00ecnh vu\u00f4ng l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t h\u00ecnh ch\u1eef
nh\u1eadt b\u1edfi v\u00ec n\u00f3 c\u00f3 m\u1ecdi thu\u1ed9c t\u00ednh (c\u1ee7a) m\u1ed9t h\u00ecnh ch\u1eef nh\u1eadt). Nh\u1eefng s\u1ef1 ch\u1ee9ng minh Kh\u00f4ng
h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111i theo sau nh\u01b0ng nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean kh\u00f4ng nh\u00ecn th\u1ea5y m\u1ec7nh l\u1ec7nh l\u00f4g\u00edc
c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 (th\u00ec) bi\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed5i m\u00e0 c\u0169ng kh\u00f4ng h\u1ecd nh\u00ecn th\u1ea5y \u0111\u1ec3 x\u00e2y d\u1ef1ng m\u1ed9t s\u1ef1 ch\u1ee9ng minh b\u1eaft \u0111\u1ea7u
nh\u01b0 th\u1ebf n\u00e0o t\u1eeb nh\u00e0 c\u1eeda kh\u00e1c hay xa l\u1ea1 nh\u01b0 th\u1ebf n\u00e0o.

Ngang m\u1ee9c 3: Suy di\u1ec5n.

T\u1ea1i m\u1ee9c n\u00e0y \u00fd ngh\u0129a (c\u1ee7a) suy di\u1ec5n nh\u01b0 m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch thi\u1ebft l\u1eadp l\u00fd thuy\u1ebft h\u00ecnh h\u1ecdc b\u00ean trong m\u1ed9t h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng ti\u00ean \u0111\u1ec1 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c hi\u1ec3u. S\u1ef1 quan h\u1ec7 l\u1eabn nhau v\u00e0 vai tr\u00f2 (c\u1ee7a) nh\u1eefng thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef v\u00e0 ch\u1ee9ng minh h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c kh\u00f4ng x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh nh\u1eefng ti\u00ean \u0111\u1ec1, nh\u1eefng \u0111\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a, nh\u1eefng \u0111\u1ecbnh l\u00fd \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u00ecn th\u1ea5y. Kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng c\u1ee7a vi\u1ec7c ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n m\u1ed9t s\u1ef1 ch\u1ee9ng minh v\u00e0o nhi\u1ec1u c\u00e1ch \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u00ecn th\u1ea5y.

Ngang m\u1ee9c 4: Kh\u1eafc nghi\u1ec7t.

Nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean t\u1ea1i m\u1ee9c n\u00e0y c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 Nh\u1eefng h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng ti\u00ean \u0111\u1ec1 kh\u00e1c so s\u00e1nh (h\u00ecnh h\u1ecdc
phi \u01a0clit c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u1ecdc). H\u00ecnh h\u1ecdc \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u00ecn th\u1ea5y m\u1ed9t c\u00e1ch t\u00f3m t\u1eaft v\u1edbi m\u1ed9t \u0111\u1ed9 cao
(c\u1ee7a) s\u1ef1 kh\u1eafc nghi\u1ec7t, th\u1eadm ch\u00ed kh\u00f4ng c\u00f3 nh\u1eefng v\u00ed d\u1ee5 c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3.

Ph\u1ea7n l\u1edbn (c\u1ee7a) nh\u1eefng kh\u00f3a h\u1ecdc h\u00ecnh h\u1ecdc trung h\u1ecdc (th\u00ec) d\u1ea1y t\u1ea1i M\u1ee9c 3. xe t\u1ea3i Hieles
c\u0169ng x\u00e1c \u0111\u1ecbnh m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 \u0111\u1eb7c tr\u01b0ng (c\u1ee7a) m\u00f4 h\u00ecnh c\u1ee7a h\u1ecd, k\u1ec3 c\u1ea3 th\u1ef1c t\u1ebf m\u00e0 m\u1ed9t ng\u01b0\u1eddi ph\u1ea3i
theo \u0111u\u1ed5i xuy\u00ean qua nh\u1eefng M\u1ee9c trong m\u1ec7nh l\u1ec7nh, m\u00e0 s\u1ef1 ti\u1ebfn b\u1ed9 t\u1eeb M\u1ee9c \u0111\u1ebfn M\u1ee9c ph\u1ee5
thu\u1ed9c H\u01a1n Tr\u00ean n\u1ed9i dung v\u00e0 ki\u1ec3u (c\u1ee7a) ch\u1ec9 d\u1eabn so v\u1edbi tr\u00ean tu\u1ed5i, v\u00e0 m\u1ed7i M\u1ee9c \u0111\u00f3 c\u00f3 t\u1eeb v\u1ef1ng
v\u00e0 h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng (c\u1ee7a) ri\u00eang m\u00ecnh (c\u1ee7a) nh\u1eefng quan h\u1ec7 c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh. Xe t\u1ea3i Hieles \u0111\u1ec1 x\u01b0\u1edbng
nh\u1eefng pha tu\u1ea7n t\u1ef1 (c\u1ee7a) s\u1ef1 h\u1ecdc \u0111\u1ec3 gi\u00fap \u0111\u1ee1 nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean di chuy\u1ec3n t\u1eeb m\u1ee9c n\u00e0y sang c\u00e1i

Th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n d\u1ea7n 1: \u0110i\u1ec1u tra/ Th\u00f4ng tin.

T\u1ea1i giai \u0111o\u1ea1n kh\u1edfi sinh n\u00e0y nh\u1eefng gi\u00e1o vi\u00ean v\u00e0 sinh vi\u00ean ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng v\u00ec cu\u1ed9c n\u00f3i
chuy\u1ec7n v\u00e0 ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng v\u1ec1 nh\u1eefng \u0111\u1ed1i t\u01b0\u1ee3ng (c\u1ee7a) s\u1ef1 nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u (cho) m\u1ee9c n\u00e0y. Nh\u1eefng s\u1ef1
quan s\u00e1t \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c l\u00e0m, nh\u1eefng c\u00e2u h\u1ecfi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c n\u00e2ng, v\u00e0 t\u1eeb v\u1ef1ng chuy\u00ean bi\u1ec7t v\u1ec1 m\u1ee9c \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c gi\u1edbi

Th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n d\u1ea7n 2: s\u1ef1 \u0110\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng \u0110\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng.

Nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean kh\u00e1m ph\u00e1 \u0111\u1ec1 t\u00e0i xuy\u00ean qua nguy\u00ean li\u1ec7u m\u00e0 gi\u00e1o vi\u00ean c\u00f3 c\u1ea9n th\u1eadn sequenced. Nh\u1eefng ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng n\u00e0y c\u1ea7n ph\u1ea3i d\u1ea7n d\u1ea7n \u0111\u1ec3 l\u1ed9 ra t\u1edbi nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean nh\u1eefng c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac \u0111\u1eb7c tr\u01b0ng t\u1ea1i m\u1ee9c n\u00e0y.

Th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n d\u1ea7n 3: Gi\u1ea3i th\u00edch.

D\u1ef1a v\u00e0o nh\u1eefng kinh nghi\u1ec7m c\u00f3 tr\u01b0\u1edbc c\u1ee7a h\u1ecd nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean bi\u1ec3u th\u1ecb v\u00e0 trao \u0111\u1ed5i
(s\u1ef1) n\u1ea9y sinh nh\u1eefng s\u1ef1 nh\u00ecn (c\u1ee7a) h\u1ecd v\u1ec1 nh\u1eefng c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac R\u1eb1ng c\u00f3 to built observed. (K\u1ebb)
Kh\u00e1c so v\u1edbi \u0111\u1ec3 gi\u00fap \u0111\u1ee1 nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean s\u1eed d\u1ee5ng t\u1eeb v\u1ef1ng ch\u00ednh x\u00e1c v\u00e0 th\u00edch h\u1ee3p, gi\u00e1o vi\u00ean
\ L\u00e0 vai tr\u00f2 L\u00e0 c\u1ef1c ti\u1ec3u. N\u00f3 trong th\u1eddi gian pha n\u00e0y m\u00e0 m\u1ee9c \ L\u00e0 h\u1ec7 th\u1ed1ng (c\u1ee7a) nh\u1eefng
quan h\u1ec7 B\u1eaft \u0111\u1ea7u tr\u1edf n\u00ean hi\u1ec3n nhi\u00ean.

Th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n d\u1ea7n 4: s\u1ef1 \u0110\u1ecbnh h\u01b0\u1edbng T\u1ef1 do.

Nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean g\u1eb7p nh\u1eefng nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 ph\u1ee9c t\u1ea1p h\u01a1n- nh\u1eefng nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 v\u1edbi nhi\u1ec1u
b\u01b0\u1edbc, nh\u1eefng nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 m\u00e0 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 (th\u00ec) ho\u00e0n t\u1ea5t v\u00e0o nhi\u1ec1u c\u00e1ch, v\u00e0 nh\u1eefng nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 c\u00f3 t\u00ednh
ch\u1ea5t m\u1edf. H\u1ecd ki\u1ebfm \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c kinh nghi\u1ec7m trong vi\u1ec7c t\u1ef1 \u00fd gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft nh\u1eefng v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 v\u00e0 l\u00e0m r\u00f5
r\u00e0ng nhi\u1ec1u quan h\u1ec7 trong s\u1ed1 nh\u1eefng \u0111\u1ed1i t\u01b0\u1ee3ng (c\u1ee7a) nh\u1eefng c\u1ea5u tr\u00fac c\u1ed1 \u00fd.

Th\u1ef1c hi\u1ec7n d\u1ea7n 5: H\u1ee3p nh\u1ea5t.

Nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean (th\u00ec) c\u00f3 kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng \u0111\u1ec3 ch\u1ee7 quan h\u00f3a v\u00e0 h\u1ee3p nh\u1ea5t nh\u1eefng quan h\u1ec7 v\u00e0o trong m\u1ed9t th\u00e2n th\u1ec3 m\u1edbi (c\u1ee7a) s\u1ef1 suy ngh\u0129. Gi\u00e1o vi\u00ean c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 tham gia s\u1ef1 t\u1ed5ng h\u1ee3p b\u1eb1ng vi\u1ec7c \u0111\u01b0a cho\'\' to\u00e0n c\u1ea7u nh\u1eefng s\u1ef1 kh\u1ea3o s\u00e1t \ '\' C\u1ee7a \u0111i\u1ec1u m\u00e0 nh\u1eefng sinh vi\u00ean \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u00e3 h\u1ecdc.

Van Hiele levels and learning geometry notes
The Van Hiele's research in math eduction was focussed on the learning of geometry. They
postulated (and subsequent research supports their framework), that students must pass

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