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tieulan1

tieulan1

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Published by: api-3732710 on Oct 19, 2008
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03/18/2014

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M\u1edf \u0111\u1ea7u
I.
L\u00ed do ch\u1ecdn \u0111\u1ec1 t\u00e0i
M\u00e1c \u0111\u00e3 kh\u1eb3ng \u0111\u1ecbnh: \u201cM\u1ed9t khoa h\u1ecdc ch\u1ec9 \u0111\u1ea1t \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c s\u1ef1 ho\u00e0n ch\u1ec9nh khi n\u00f3 s\u1eed
d\u1ee5ng to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc\u201d. To\u00e1n h\u1ecdc xu\u1ea5t hi\u1ec7n v\u00e0 ng\u00e0y c\u00e0ng \u0111a d\u1ea1ng ho\u00e1 l\u00e0 do y\u00eau c\u1ea7u

ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u1ee7a ch\u00ednh b\u1ea3n th\u00e2n to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c khoa h\u1ecdc kh\u00e1c, ch\u1ee9 kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i ch\u1ec9 l\u00e0 s\u1ea3n ph\u1ea9m t\u01b0 duy thu\u1ea7n tu\u00fd c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 khoa h\u1ecdc hay do Th\u01b0\u1ee3ng \u0111\u1ebf m\u00e1ch b\u1ea3o nh\u01b0 quan \u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc duy t\u00e2m. V\u00e0, gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb to l\u1edbn c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc l\u00e0 \u1edf ch\u1ed7, ch\u00fang l\u00e0 c\u00f4ng c\u1ee5 tr\u1ee3 gi\u00fap \u0111\u1eafc l\u1ef1c cho kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c c\u1ee7a con ng\u01b0\u1eddi v\u1ec1 th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi hi\u1ec7n th\u1ef1c v\u00e0 g\u00f3p ph\u1ea7n th\u00fac \u0111\u1ea9y c\u00e1c khoa h\u1ecdc kh\u00e1c ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n, g\u00f3p ph\u1ea7n ph\u1ee5c v\u1ee5 cho l\u1ee3i \u00edch thi\u1ebft th\u1ef1c c\u1ee7a con ng\u01b0\u1eddi.

M\u1eb7c d\u00f9 tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc c\u00f3 vai tr\u00f2 r\u1ea5t quan tr\u1ecdng trong nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c v\u00e0 th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n nh\u01b0ng tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc kh\u00f4ng th\u1ec3 thay th\u1ebf cho c\u00e1c khoa h\u1ecdc kh\u00e1c trong vi\u1ec7c nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi. M\u1ed1i quan h\u1ec7 bi\u1ec7n ch\u1ee9ng gi\u1eefa tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc v\u1edbi c\u00e1c khoa h\u1ecdc kh\u00e1c l\u00e0 \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n ti\u00ean quy\u1ebft cho s\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u1ee7a tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc, \u0111\u1eb7c bi\u1ec7t l\u00e0 to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc. V\u1edbi to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc, ch\u00fang ta c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 gi\u1ea3i quy\u1ebft \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nh\u1eefng nhi\u1ec7m v\u1ee5 g\u1eafn li\u1ec1n v\u1edbi th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n. V\u1edbi c\u00e1c l\u00fd do tr\u00ean t\u00f4i quy\u1ebft \u0111\u1ecbnh ch\u1ecdn \u0111\u1ec1 t\u00e0i \u201cVai tr\u00f2 c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc

trong nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c khoa h\u1ecdc\u201d.
II. M\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch v\u00e0 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u
Nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u c\u01a1 s\u1edf l\u00fd lu\u1eadn v\u00e0 th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n vai tr\u00f2 nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc trong

nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c khoa h\u1ecdc.
Nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u l\u00fd lu\u1eadn: th\u00f4ng qua c\u00e1c t\u00e0i li\u1ec7u v\u1ec1 tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc, logic h\u1ecdc, to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc.
Nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n: th\u00f4ng qua c\u00e1c ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c h\u1eb1ng ng\u00e0y

III. \u00dd ngh\u0129a c\u1ee7a \u0111\u1ec1 t\u00e0i
Gi\u00fap vi\u1ec7c l\u0129nh h\u1ed9i tri th\u1ee9c khoa h\u1ecdc c\u00f3 hi\u1ec7u qu\u1ea3 h\u01a1n th\u00f4ng qua vi\u1ec7c n\u1eafm
v\u1eefng c\u00e1c quy t\u1eafc suy lu\u1eadn to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc.
Gi\u00fap c\u00e1c cu\u1ed9c tranh lu\u1eadn khoa h\u1ecdc \u0111i \u0111\u00fang h\u01b0\u1edbng v\u00e0 s\u1edbm \u0111\u1ea1t k\u1ebft qu\u1ea3.
IV. C\u1ea5u tr\u00fac c\u1ee7a ti\u1ec3u lu\u1eadn
M\u1edf \u0111\u1ea7u
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 1: C\u00e1c quan \u0111i\u1ec3m v\u1ec1 vai tr\u00f2 nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc trong l\u1ecbch s\u1eed

tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 2: M\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 bi\u1ec3u hi\u1ec7n c\u1ee5 th\u1ec3 v\u1ec1 vai tr\u00f2 nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 3: V\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 ch\u00e2n l\u00fd trong to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc
K\u1ebft lu\u1eadn
T\u00e0i li\u1ec7u tham kh\u1ea3o

1
Ch\u01b0\u01a1ng 1: C\u00c1C QUAN \u0110I\u1ec2M V\u1ec0 VAI TR\u00d2 NH\u1eacN TH\u1ee8C C\u1ee6A
TO\u00c1N H\u1eccC TRONG L\u1ecaCH S\u1eec TRI\u1ebeT H\u1eccC
1.1. S\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c quan \u0111i\u1ec3m tr\u01b0\u1edbc M\u00e1c

Vai tr\u00f2 c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc trong nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c khoa h\u1ecdc kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i m\u00e3i \u0111\u1ebfn ng\u00e0y nay m\u1edbi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c kh\u1eb3ng \u0111\u1ecbnh. \u0110\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi, kh\u00f4ng ph\u1ea3i ch\u1ec9 sau khi ch\u1ee7 ngh\u0129a duy v\u1eadt Macx\u00edt ra \u0111\u1eddi th\u00ec v\u1ea5n \u0111\u1ec1 tr\u00ean m\u1edbi \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c \u0111\u1ec1 c\u1eadp \u0111\u1ebfn. Vai tr\u00f2 nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c nhi\u1ec1u tr\u01b0\u1eddng ph\u00e1i tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc quan t\u00e2m \u0111\u1ebfn t\u00f9y theo c\u00e1ch ti\u1ebfp c\u1eadn v\u00e0 m\u1ee5c \u0111\u00edch nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u kh\u00e1c nhau.

Trong ti\u1ec3u lu\u1eadn n\u00e0y, ta s\u1ebd gi\u1edbi thi\u1ec7u quan \u0111i\u1ec3m c\u1ee7a m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 tr\u01b0\u1eddng ph\u00e1i ti\u00eau bi\u1ec3u nh\u01b0: tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc c\u1ed5 \u0111\u1ea1i (Pitago, \u0110\u00eam\u00f4crit, Platon, Arist\u00f4t,\u2026), Ch\u1ee7 ngh\u0129a duy l\u00fd (\u0110\u00eacacxt\u01a1, Lepnitx\u01a1,\u2026), tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc c\u1ed5 \u0111i\u1ec3n \u0110\u1ee9c (Kant, H\u00eaghen,\u2026). Tr\u00ean c\u01a1 s\u1edf \u0111\u00f3 kh\u1eb3ng \u0111\u1ecbnh s\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c quan \u0111i\u1ec3m kh\u00e1c nhau v\u1ec1 vai tr\u00f2 nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc.

Platon kh\u1eb3ng \u0111\u1ecbnh, to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc l\u00e0 m\u00f4n h\u1ecdc h\u01b0\u1edbng d\u1eabn l\u00fd tr\u00ed trong vi\u1ec7c nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u c\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed1i t\u01b0\u1ee3ng v\u00e0 nh\u1eefng m\u1ed1i li\u00ean h\u1ec7 tr\u1eebu t\u01b0\u1ee3ng. N\u00f3 cung c\u1ea5p m\u1ed9t b\u1eb1ng ch\u1ee9ng v\u1ec1 suy lu\u1eadn di\u1ec5n d\u1ecbch, l\u00e0 th\u1ee9 suy lu\u1eadn \u0111i t\u1eeb nh\u1eefng ti\u1ec1n \u0111\u1ec1 s\u00e1ng r\u00f5 \u0111\u1ebfn nh\u1eefng k\u1ebft lu\u1eadn t\u1ea5t y\u1ebfu.

Aristote \u0111\u1ed3ng \u00fd v\u1edbi Plato r\u1eb1ng to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc c\u00f3 gi\u00e1 tr\u1ecb nh\u01b0 m\u1ed9t tri th\u1ee9c, ho\u00e0n to\u00e0n kh\u00f4ng k\u1ec3 t\u1edbi nh\u1eefng \u1ee9ng d\u1ee5ng th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n, nh\u01b0ng \u00f4ng ph\u1ea3n \u0111\u1ed1i m\u1ea1nh m\u1ebd \u00fd ki\u1ebfn n\u00f3i to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c coi l\u00e0 m\u1eabu m\u1ef1c cho t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 tri th\u1ee9c tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc. \u00d4ng l\u1ea5y l\u00e0m kh\u00f3 ch\u1ecbu th\u1ea5y nh\u1eefng h\u1ecdc tr\u00f2 c\u1ee7a Plato \u0111\u1ed3ng nh\u1ea5t h\u00f3a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc v\u1edbi tri\u1ebft h\u1ecdc, v\u00e0 c\u00e1c sinh vi\u00ean khoa tri\u1ebft s\u1ebd kh\u00f4ng l\u1eafng nghe gi\u1ea3ng vi\u00ean n\u00e0o kh\u00f4ng tr\u00ecnh b\u00e0y t\u01b0 t\u01b0\u1edfng c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh b\u1eb1ng h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc. Theo Aristotle, m\u1ed7i khoa h\u1ecdc c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p ri\u00eang th\u00edch h\u1ee3p \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi \u0111\u1ed1i t\u01b0\u1ee3ng ch\u00ednh y\u1ebfu c\u1ee7a n\u00f3, v\u00e0 do \u0111\u00f3, ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc kh\u00f4ng n\u00ean \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng trong c\u00e1c khoa h\u1ecdc kh\u00e1c.

S\u1ef1 b\u1ea5t \u0111\u1ed3ng t\u1eeb th\u1eddi th\u01b0\u1ee3ng c\u1ed5 Hy L\u1ea1p n\u00e0y l\u1ea1i ti\u1ebfp t\u1ee5c \u1edf th\u1eddi hi\u1ec7n \u0111\u1ea1i trong c\u00e1c
quan \u0111i\u1ec3m \u0111\u1ed1i l\u1eadp nhau c\u1ee7a Descartes v\u00e0 Kant. L\u00e0 nh\u00e0 to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc v\u0129 \u0111\u1ea1i \u0111\u1ed3ng th\u1eddi
2

l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t tri\u1ebft gia, Descartes tuy\u00ean b\u1ed1 ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc l\u00e0 con \u0111\u01b0\u1eddng duy nh\u1ea5t d\u1eabn \u0111\u1ebfn tri th\u1ee9c, k\u1ec3 c\u1ea3 tri th\u1ee9c v\u1ec1 v\u1eadt l\u00fd v\u0169 tr\u1ee5. \u0110\u1ed1i v\u1edbi \u00f4ng, c\u0169ng nh\u01b0 \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi Newton v\u00e0 c\u00e1c nh\u00e0 khoa h\u1ecdc hi\u1ec7n \u0111\u1ea1i v\u0129 \u0111\u1ea1i kh\u00e1c, th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi t\u1ef1 nhi\u00ean h\u00ecnh th\u00e0nh theo c\u00e1ch c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c hi\u1ec3u r\u00f5 nh\u1ea5t b\u1eb1ng ph\u00e2n t\u00edch to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc. T\u1eeb c\u00e1i nh\u00ecn n\u00e0y, v\u0169 tr\u1ee5 v\u1eadt ch\u1ea5t c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t c\u01a1 c\u1ea5u c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 di\u1ec5n t\u1ea3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c b\u1eb1ng c\u00e1c thu\u1eadt ng\u1eef to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc. Kant th\u1eeba nh\u1eadn r\u1eb1ng nh\u1eefng nguy\u00ean l\u00fd to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 \u00e1p d\u1ee5ng v\u00e0o vi\u1ec7c nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi v\u1eadt l\u00fd, v\u00e0 \u00f4ng \u0111\u1ec1 cao thi\u00ean t\u00e0i c\u1ee7a Newton

1.2. Quan \u0111i\u1ec3m duy v\u1eadt bi\u1ec7n ch\u1ee9ng

C\u00e1c nh\u00e0 s\u00e1ng l\u1eadp ch\u1ee7 ngh\u0129a M\u00e1c-L\u00eanin \u0111\u1ec1u nh\u00ecn th\u1ea5y \u00fd ngh\u0129a to l\u1edbn c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 s\u1ef1 v\u1eadn d\u1ee5ng c\u00e1c ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ph\u00e1p c\u1ee7a n\u00f3 \u0111\u1ed1i v\u1edbi vi\u1ec7c nghi\u00ean c\u1ee9u c\u00e1c hi\u1ec7n t\u01b0\u1ee3ng t\u1ef1 nhi\u00ean v\u00e0 x\u00e3 h\u1ed9i. Theo \u0102nghen: "Mu\u1ed1n c\u00f3 m\u1ed9t quan ni\u1ec7m v\u1eeba bi\u1ec7n ch\u1ee9ng v\u1eeba duy v\u1eadt v\u1ec1 t\u1ef1 nhi\u00ean th\u00ec ng\u01b0\u1eddi ta ph\u1ea3i bi\u1ebft to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 khoa h\u1ecdc t\u1ef1 nhi\u00ean".

\u0102nghen cho r\u1eb1ng, vai tr\u00f2 nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c c\u1ee7a to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc kh\u00f4ng t\u00e1ch r\u1eddi nh\u1eefng nhu c\u1ea7u ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n c\u1ee7a con ng\u01b0\u1eddi. V\u00ed d\u1ee5, kh\u1ea3 n\u0103ng ph\u00e2n bi\u1ec7t s\u1ef1 v\u1eadt n\u00e0y v\u1edbi s\u1ef1 v\u1eadt kh\u00e1c \u0111\u00e3 \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c h\u00ecnh th\u00e0nh t\u1eeb nhu c\u1ea7u ho\u1ea1t \u0111\u1ed9ng \u0111\u1ebfm c\u00e1c \u0111\u1ed3 v\u1eadt c\u1ee7a con ng\u01b0\u1eddi.Trong "c\u00e1c t\u1eadp b\u1ea3n th\u1ea3o to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc", M\u00e1c \u0111\u00e3 ph\u00e2n t\u00edch b\u1ea3n ch\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a vi ph\u00e2n

trong to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 xem n\u00f3 nh\u01b0 l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t ph\u01b0\u01a1ng ti\u1ec7n tham gia v\u00e0o qu\u00e1 tr\u00ecnh t\u00ecm ra
nh\u1eefng tri th\u1ee9c m\u1edbi.

Theo nh\u1eadn x\u00e9t c\u1ee7a L\u00eanin, nhi\u1ec1u ph\u01b0\u01a1ng tr\u00ecnh vi ph\u00e2n thu\u1ed9c v\u1ec1 c\u00e1c l\u0129nh v\u1ef1c kh\u00e1c nhau c\u1ee7a c\u00e1c hi\u1ec7n t\u01b0\u1ee3ng l\u1ea1i r\u1ea5t gi\u1ed1ng nhau v\u1ec1 m\u1eb7t h\u00ecnh th\u1ee9c v\u00e0 ch\u00ednh s\u1ef1 gi\u1ed1ng nhau \u0111\u00f3 \u0111\u00e3 ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh t\u00ednh th\u1ed1ng nh\u1ea5t c\u1ee7a t\u1ef1 nhi\u00ean. \u0110i\u1ec1u \u0111\u00f3 ch\u1ee9ng t\u1ecf c\u00e1c vi ph\u00e2n to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc \u0111\u00e3 tham gia v\u00e0o vi\u1ec7c ph\u1ea3n \u00e1nh c\u00e1c kh\u00eda c\u1ea1nh kh\u00e1c nhau c\u1ee7a th\u1ebf gi\u1edbi hi\u1ec7n th\u1ef1c.

Trong \u0111i\u1ec1u ki\u1ec7n hi\u1ec7n nay, tr\u01b0\u1edbc s\u1ef1 ph\u00e1t tri\u1ec3n m\u1ea1nh m\u1ebd c\u1ee7a cu\u1ed9c c\u00e1ch m\u1ea1ng khoa h\u1ecdc v\u00e0 c\u00f4ng ngh\u1ec7, to\u00e1n h\u1ecdc v\u1eabn kh\u1eb3ng \u0111\u1ecbnh \u0111\u01b0\u1ee3c vai tr\u00f2 nh\u1eadn th\u1ee9c to l\u1edbn c\u1ee7a m\u00ecnh. Nh\u01b0ng tr\u01b0\u1edbc s\u1ef1 bi\u1ebfn \u0111\u1ed5i c\u1ee7a th\u1ef1c ti\u1ec5n, quan \u0111i\u1ec3m duy v\u1eadt bi\u1ec7n

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