event takes place so as to achieve good results in health, convenience, comfort and happiness of all living beings. By careful planning, we can eradicate the mistakes of the past and be wiser in the future.
means an environment in which natural surroundings have been dominated by artificial or man-made surroundings, which man builds for himself-for his living, working and recreation.
Town planning is considered as an art of shaping and guiding the physical growth of the town creating buildings and environments to meet the various needs such as social, cultural, economic and recreational etc. and to provide healthy conditions for both rich and poor to live, to work, and to play or relax, thus bringing about the social and economic well-being for the majority of mankind. Aristotle once said: \u201cA city should be built to give its inhabitants security and happiness\u201d while Plato describes it as \u201ca place where men had a common life for a noble end\u201d.
(b) Housing accommodation to various classes of people should be allowed to develop. If slums are existing, they should be pulled down by making some alternate arrangement of accommodation in transit camps for dishoused persons.
(f) The system of zoning should be strictly followed. The town should be divided into suitable zones such as residential zone, commercial zones, industrial zone and recreational zone etc.
(g) The growth of the town should be controlled by the provision of green belt, which is an open strip of land all round the town or city reserved for special purpose of limiting the growth of the city.
A town or city which is properly planned affords more comforts and conveniences to the public. The need of town planning. Can very well be appreciated by mentioning the evil solutions which is town has to face in the absence of town planning. They are as
(1) defective road system resulting in the formation of narrow streets and lanes;
(2) development of slums and squatter settlements;
(3) haphazard location of industries;
(4) heavy traffic congestion during the working hours of the day;
(6) lack of essential amenities like electricity, water supply and drainage;
(7) noisy atmosphere disturbing the peace of city dwellers;
(8) uncontrolled development of the town;
(9) unhealthy living conditions; etc.
Patrick Geddes (1854-1932) came to India in 1915 at the invitation of Lord Pentland, the then Governor of Madras. He gave his expert advice for the improvement of about eighteen major towns in India. He laid emphasis on 'Survey before Plan' i.e. diagnosis before treatment to make a correct diagnosis of various ills from which the town suffers and then prescribe the correct remedies for its cure. These are the physical and social economic surveys. He was the first man who introduced the
(1) The town planning primarily meant establishing organic relationship among 'Folk, Place and Work' which corresponds to triad (Geddesian triad) of Organism, Function and Environment, Folk organism (social aspect); Place (physical aspect); Work (economical aspect).
(2) The city is no longer a mere physical structure but it is now meant the people, their families and communities they formed, their places to live, to work and to play. Hence here human needs are most important than physical aspects. This epitomizes the essence of planning.
Howard (1850-1928) who after studying the industrial evils in Britain gave the concept of 'Garden City'. It soon became the landmark in the history of town planning. He had an idea which he set forth in a little book entitled 'To-morrow', published in 1898 which later republished under the title of 'Garden City of To- morrow'. He explained his idea of 'Garden City' by an impressive diagram ofThe
their advantages and disadvantages and the third magnet with attractive features of both town and country life. Naturally people preferred the third one namely Garden City. It made a deep impression in the field of town planning. Letchworth, Welwyn and many other cities were planned on this principle.
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