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Chemical Project2005

Chemical Project2005



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Published by: DIPAK VINAYAK SHIRBHATE on Oct 19, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Manufacturing of Ethyl Alcohol from Fruit Waste
In general, alcohol means colorless volatile inflammable liquid especiallyintoxicant in wire, beer, spirits etc. and as a solvent, fuel etc. Depending on theinterest of the person involved, for alcohols are many things to many people. Tomost non technical people, "alcohol" in the broad sense is used to describe anyintoxicating beverage; thus, a heavy or habitual drinker is called "alcoholic" the caseis some what different in the industrial manufacturing fields which produce finishedgoods, intermediates, or raw materials, alcohols play a key role as importantorganic solvents and rank second only to water in terms of their almost universalapplication. Hence to these people alcohols mean solvents.Take a spoonful of medicine; feel the smoothness of the lacquer on the pinepralines in the play room ; look at the tyres of your car, smell the window cleaner spray, make use of a hair spray, deodorant stick, or are antiperspiral; carry your water proof cloth covered books to school etc. Alcohols play their solvent role in allthese personal events. Alcohols can be regarded as hydroxyl derivatives of hydrocarbons, one the basis of several types of classification, di-hydric. There arevarious types of alcohol belonging to the homologues series of alcohols, of likemethanol, ethanol, propanol etc. teach member in the series have its own specificproperty and most active member of the series is "Ethanol".Here the fig. Below shows the chemicals from ethanol.
C.O.E.& T.,Akola
1AcetaldehydeEthyleneAlkylatedAeromaticsDiethyl Ether Mixed ether Organic EstersButadieneEthoxidesHalidesEstersEthanol
Manufacturing of Ethyl Alcohol from Fruit Waste
Now, in this project we have made an attempt to prey prepare the alcoholfrom waste fruits and for it we have chosen Sapota (Hindi Name:Chiku ). (BotanicalName : Acharas Sapota, Mallinkara Acaras. Sopota the sweetest fruit second tobanana, is chiefly grown in moist coastal tracts of peninsular India, but in recentyears it has spread in the zones of plateau and also sub-mountains tracts of NorthIndia. In India, the main centers of its cultivation are the coastal tract andMaharashtra, coastal areas of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Saurashtraand submountain and sumountain areas of H.P. and Bengal. In Maharashtra it isgrown over the areas of too hectares mainly concentrated in Thana, Pune,Ahmednagar and Aurangabad districts. More than 70% of the area is in Thanadistrict. In India, it is mainly grown for fruits, but in outer countries the milky latexfrom the bank of the "tree" , yields an important commercial product, which fours thebase for manufacture of chewing gums.
One of the definitions of alcohol refer to the occurrence or preparation of alcohol by known methods such as fermentation of carbohydrates, or synthesis byhydration of ethylene.Alcoholic fermentation " a process in which certain kinds of sugar (glucose)are converted in to alcohols and carbon dioxide by the action of various yields,moulds of Bacteria on carbohydrate materials. Some of which do not themselvesundergo fermentation but can be hydrolysed in to fermentation substances. ( as inthe production alcohol and alcoholic beverages.)
The knowledge of fermentation goes back about 6000 years, long before anywritten records of history. Archeological studies of relics from due old tombs of Egypt have uncovered vessels that contained residues of starch and yeasts. Duringthese ancient times, man originated alcohol which was accepted and celebratedamong puritive and civilized people for thousands of years. All the accidentreferences discuss alcohol in the form of beverage. But distillation was not knownin Europe until the twelfth a thirteenth century, A.D. Gradually, the concept of 
C.O.E.& T.,Akola
Manufacturing of Ethyl Alcohol from Fruit Waste
distillation came into the mind of the people workers over the put of alcohol for India.In India, the concept of fermentation was commercialized in 1900 to 1910after the discovery of Louis Pastern and the process came in to use before 1930 toabout 1948 saw the development of indirect Hydration process to manufactureEthanol synthetically.
Growth in potable alcohol industries in liked with the demand for theconsumption of the people and the chemical products in industries in which alcoholplays an impatant role.Fruits ripe within 4-5 days, the unripe fruits can be stored at 50% 52 F for five weeks while ripe fruits can be stored at 32
to 35
F.Yield up to 10 years – 750 fruits/ha.Field up to 5 years – 1000 – 1500 fruits/ha.After 15 years, yield was – 2000 – 2500 fruits or 18 – 20 tons /ha.Especially, in Maharashtra, Sapota was grown in area of 3900ha and theproduction was obtained 10,920.
Unripe Sapota is kept into the large capacity containers and the containersare packed with the straw. So, that the surface of the two fruits could not touch witheach other. It should be stored away from all ignition sources and also from highand low temp. The temp is kept moderate ( depending upon the atmosphereconditions of the place ).Under these conditions, the unripe Sapota gets ripen and ready to eat.All the sources for ethanol productionThe three types of sources of ethanol production –
( Sugar containing ) materials in which the carbohydrate ( theactual substance from which the alcohol is made ) is present in the form of simple,directly fermentable six and twelve carbon sugar cane, sugar beets, fruit ( Fresh or dried ), citrus molasses, cane sorghum why and skim milk.
C.O.E.& T.,Akola

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