One of the major drawbacks of OFDM is the high peak-to-average power ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signals, i.e., thelarge variations in the instantaneous power of the transmittedsignal. This would require linear amplification. The result of such linear amplification would imply more powerconsumption. This is significant on the uplink, due to the lowmobile-terminal power consumption and cost. Therefore,wide-band single-carrier transmission is an alternative tomulti-carrier transmission, particularly for the uplink. One of such single-carrier transmission scheme can be implementedusing DFT-spread OFDM which has been selected as theuplink transmission scheme for LTE allowing for smallvariations in the instantaneous power of the transmitted uplink signal.The main advantage of DFTS-OFDM, compared to OFDM, isthe reduction of variations in the instantaneous transmitpower, leading to the possibility for increased power-amplifierefficiency.DFT spreading technique is a promising solution to reducePAPR
because of it’s superiority
in PAPR reductionperformance compared to block coding, Selective Mapping(SLM), Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) and ToneReservation (TR) [24-25]. SC-FDMA and OFDMA are bothmultiple-access versions of OFDM. There are two subcarriermapping schemes in single carrier frequency division multipleaccess (SC-FDMA) to allocate subcarriers between units:Distributed FDMA and Localized FDMA.
Fig. 3.Subcarrier allocation methods for multiple users ( 3 users, 12subcarriers, and 4 subcarriers allocated per user).
III SIMULATION AND RESULTSBefore examining the reduction of PAPR, let us consider asingle-carrier system where N=1. Figure 4 shows both thebaseband QPSK-modulated signal and the passband signalwith a single carrier frequency of 1 Hz and an oversamplingfactor of 8. Figure 4a shows that the baseband
average and peak power values are the same that is PAPR is0dB.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4-101S
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4-101
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 400.51PAPR = 0dBsamples
( n ) |
+ | S
( n ) |
Fig. 4. (a) Baseband signal
On the other hand, Figure 4b shows the passband signal with aPAPR of 3,01 dB.
S ( n )
00.511.522.533.5400.51PAPR = 3.01dBsamples
| S ( n ) |
Fig. 4. (b) Passband signal
Note that the PAPR varies in the passband signal dependingon the carrier frequency. As a result, when measuring thePAPR of a single-carrier system, then we must be taken intoconsideration the carrier frequency of the passband signal.A.
Interleaved, Localized and Orthogonal-FDMA
There are two channel allocation schemes for SC-FDMAsystems; i.e., the localized and interleaved schemes where thesubcarriers are transmitted subsequently, rather than inparallel. In the following simulation results, we compared
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 20113http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500