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Effect of Curvature on the Performance of Cylindrical Microstrip Printed Antenna for TM01 mode Using Two Different Substrates

Effect of Curvature on the Performance of Cylindrical Microstrip Printed Antenna for TM01 mode Using Two Different Substrates

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Published by ijcsis
Curvature has a great effect on fringing field of a microstrip antenna and consequently fringing field affects effective dielectric constant and then all antenna parameters. A new mathematical model for input impedance, return loss, voltage standing wave ratio and electric and magnetic fields is introduced in this paper. These parameters are given for TM01 mode and using two different substrate materials RT/duroid-5880 PTFE and K-6098 Teflon/Glass. Experimental results for RT/duroid-5880 PTFE substrate are also introduced to validate the new model.
Curvature has a great effect on fringing field of a microstrip antenna and consequently fringing field affects effective dielectric constant and then all antenna parameters. A new mathematical model for input impedance, return loss, voltage standing wave ratio and electric and magnetic fields is introduced in this paper. These parameters are given for TM01 mode and using two different substrate materials RT/duroid-5880 PTFE and K-6098 Teflon/Glass. Experimental results for RT/duroid-5880 PTFE substrate are also introduced to validate the new model.

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12/20/2012

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 2011
Effect of Curvature on the Performance of Cylindrical Microstrip Printed Antennafor
TM 
01
mode Using Two Different Substrates
Ali ElrashidiDepartment of Computer andElectrical Engineering
 
University of BridgeportBridgeport, CT, USAaelrashi@bridgeport.eduKhaled ElleithyDepartment of Computer andElectrical Engineering
 
University of BridgeportBridgeport, CT, USAelleithy@bridgeport.eduHassan Bajwa
 
Department of ElectricalEngineering
line 2: name of 
University of BridgeportBridgeport, CT, USAhbjwa@bridgeport.edu
 
 Abstract 
 — 
 
Curvature has a great effect on fringing field of amicrostrip antenna and consequently fringing field affectseffective dielectric constant and then all antenna parameters.A new mathematical model for input impedance, return loss,voltage standing wave ratio and electric and magnetic fields isintroduced in this paper. These parameters are given for
TM 
01
 mode and using two different substrate materials RT/duroid-5880 PTFE and K-6098 Teflon/Glass. Experimental results forRT/duroid-5880 PTFE substrate are also introduced tovalidate the new model.
 Keywords: Fringing field, Curvature, effective dielectric constant and Return loss (S11), Voltage Standing Wave Ratio(VSWR), Transverse Magnetic TM 
01
mode.
 
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 Due to the unprinted growth in wireless applications andincreasing demand of low cost solutions for RF andmicrowave communication systems, the microstrip flatantenna, has undergone tremendous growth recently.Though the models used in analyzing microstrip structureshave been widely accepted, the effect of curvature ondielectric constant and antenna performance has not beenstudied in detail. Low profile, low weight, low cost and itsability of conforming to curve surfaces [1], conformalmicrostrip structures have also witnessed enormous growthin the last few years. Applications of microstrip structuresinclude Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV), planes, rocket,radars and communication industry [2]. Some advantagesof conformal antennas over the planer microstrip structureinclude, easy installation (randome not needed), capabilityof embedded structure within composite
aerodynamic
 surfaces, better angular coverage and controlled gain,depending upon shape [3, 4]. While Conformal Antennaprovide potential solution for many applications, it has somedrawbacks due to bedding [5]. Such drawbacks includephase, impedance, and resonance frequency errors due tothe stretching and compression of the dielectric materialalong the inner and outer surfaces of conformal surface.Changes in the dielectric constant and material thicknessalso affect the performance of the antenna. Analysis toolsfor conformal arrays are not mature and fully developed [6].Dielectric materials suffer from cracking due to bending andthat will affect the performance of the conformal microstripantenna.II.
 
B
ACKGROUND
 Conventional microstrip antenna has a metallic patchprinted on a thin, grounded dielectric substrate. Althoughthe patch can be of any shape, rectangular patches, as shownin Figure 1 [7], are preferred due to easy calculation andmodeling.
FIGURE 1. Rectangular microstrip antenna
Fringing fields have a great effect on the performance of amicrostrip antenna. In microstrip antennas the electric filedin the center of the patch is zero. The radiation is due to thefringing field between the periphery of the patch and theground plane. For the rectangular patch shown in theFigure 2, there is no field variation along the width andthickness. The amount of the fringing field is a function of the dimensions of the patch and the height of the substrate.Higher the substrate, the greater is the fringing field.Due to the effect of fringing, a microstrip patch antennawould look electrically wider compared to its physicaldimensions. As shown in Figure 2, waves travel both in
 L
ɛ
r
8http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 2011
yx
L
ε
 
R z
substrate and in the air. Thus an effective dielectric constant
εreff is to be introduced. The effective dielectric constantεreff takes in account both the fringing and the wave
propagation in the line.
FIGURE 2. Electric field lines (Side View).
The expression for the effective dielectric constant isintroduced by A. Balanis [7], as shown in Equation 1.(1)The length of the patch is extended on each end by
 ΔL
is afunction of effective dielectric constant and the widthto height ratio (
W/h
).
 ΔL
can be calculated according to apractical approximate relation for the normalized extensionof the length [8], as in Equation 2.(2)
FIGURE 3. Physical and effective lengths of rectangular microstrip patch.
The effective length of the patch is
 L
eff 
and can be calculatedas in Equation 3.
 L
eff 
= L+2ΔL
(3)By using the effective dielectric constant (Equation 1) andeffective length (Equation 3), we can calculate theresonance frequency of the antenna f and all the microstripantenna parameters.
Cylindrical-Rectangular Patch Antenna
All the previous work for a conformal rectangularmicrostrip antenna assumed that the curvature does notaffect the effective dielectric constant and the extension onthe length. The effect of curvature on the resonant frequencyhas been presented previously [9]. In this paper we presentthe effect of fringing field on the performance of aconformal patch antenna. A mathematical model thatincludes the effect of curvature on fringing field and onantenna performance is presented. The cylindrical-rectangular patch is the most famous and popular conformalantenna. The manufacturing of this antenna is easy withrespect to spherical and conical antennas.
FIGURE 4: Geometry of cylindrical-rectangular patch antenna[9]
Effect of curvature of conformal antenna on resonantfrequency been presented by Clifford M. Krowne [9, 10] as:(4)Where
2b
is a length of the patch antenna,
a
is a radius of the cylinder,
2θ 
is the angle bounded the width of the patch,
ε
represents electric permittivity and
 µ
is the magneticpermeability as shown in Figure 4.Joseph A.
et al
, presented an approach to the analysis of microstrip antennas on cylindrical surface. In this approach,the field in terms of surface current is calculated, whileconsidering dielectric layer around the cylindrical body. Theassumption is only valid if radiation is smaller than storedenergy[11]. Kwai
et al
. [12]gave a brief analysis of a thincylindrical-rectangular microstrip patch antenna whichincludes resonant frequencies, radiation patterns, inputimpedances and
Q
factors. The effect of curvature on thecharacteristics of 
TM 
10
and
TM 
01
modes is also presented inKwai
et al
. paper. The authors first obtained the electricfield under the curved patch using the cavity model and thencalculated the far field by considering the equivalentmagnetic current radiating in the presence of cylindricalsurface. The cavity model, used for the analysis is only validfor a very thin dielectric. Also, for much small thicknessthan a wavelength and the radius of curvature, only
TM 
 modes are assumed to exist. In order to calculate theradiation patterns of cylindrical-rectangular patch antenna.
The authors introduced the exact Green’s function approach.
Using Equation (4), they obtained expressions for the far
h
 ΔL
  L
 ΔL
 
9http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 2011
zone electric field components
θ 
and
 E 
φ
as a functions of Hankel function of the second kind
 H 
 p(2)
.
The inputimpedance and
Q
factors are also calculated under the sameconditions.Based on cavity model, microstrip conformal antenna on aprojectile for GPS (Global Positioning System) device isdesigned and implemented by using perturbation theory isintroduced by Sun L., Zhu J., Zhang H. and Peng X [13].The designed antenna is emulated and analyzed by IE3Dsoftware. The emulated results showed that the antennacould provide excellent circular hemisphere beam, betterwide-angle circular polarization and better impedance matchpeculiarity.Nickolai Zhelev introduced a design of a small conformalmicrostrip GPS patch antenna [14]. A cavity model andtransmission line model are used to find the initialdimensions of the antenna and then electromagneticsimulation of the antenna model using software calledFEKO is applied. The antenna is experimentally tested andthe author compared the result with the software results. Itwas founded that the resonance frequency of the conformalantenna is shifted toward higher frequencies compared tothe flat one.The effect of curvature on a fringing field and on theresonance frequency of the microstrip printed antenna isstudied in [15]. Also, the effect of curvature on theperformance of a microstrip antenna as a function of temperature for
TM 
01
and
TM 
10
is introduced in [16], [17].III.
 
G
ENERAL
E
XPRESSIONS FOR
E
LECTRIC AND
M
AGNETIC
F
IELDS
I
NTENSITIES
 In this section, we will introduce the general expressions of electric and magnetic field intensities for a microstripantenna printed on a cylindrical body represented incylindrical coordinates.
Starting from Maxwell’s
Equation s, we can get the relationbetween electric field intensity
 E 
and magnetic flux density
 B
 
as known by Faraday’s law
[18], as shown in Equation(2):


(2)Magnetic field intensity
 H 
and electric flux density
 D
arerelated by Ampérés law as in Equation (3):
 

(3)where
is the electric current density.The magnetic flux density
 B
and electric flux density
 D
 
as afunction of time
 
can be written as in Equation (4):

 
and
 

 
(4)where
 μ
is the magnetic permeability and
ɛ
is the electricpermittivity.By substituting Equation (4) in Equations (2) and (3), wecan get:

 and

(5)where
ω
is the angular frequency and has the form of:

. In homogeneous medium, the divergence of Equation (2) is:

 and
 
(6)From Equation (5), we can get Equation (7):

 or

(7)Using the fact that, any curl free vector is the gradient of thesame scalar, hence:
 
(8)where
φ
is the electric scalar potential.By letting:

 where
 A
is the magnetic vector potential.So, the Helmholtz Equation takes the form of (9):
A+
-J (9)
is the wave number and has the form of:
 
, and
is Laplacian operator. The solutions of HelmholtzEquation are called wave potentials:


(10)
 
 
 A) Near Field Equations
By using the Equations number (10) and magnetic vectorpotential in [19], we can get the near electric and magneticfields as shown below:

 

 


 
 


(12)
 E 
φ
and
 E 
 ρ
are also getting using Equation (7);


 
 



 (13)
10http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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