(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 2011
substrate and in the air. Thus an effective dielectric constant
εreff is to be introduced. The effective dielectric constantεreff takes in account both the fringing and the wave
propagation in the line.
FIGURE 2. Electric field lines (Side View).
The expression for the effective dielectric constant isintroduced by A. Balanis , as shown in Equation 1.(1)The length of the patch is extended on each end by
is afunction of effective dielectric constant and the widthto height ratio (
can be calculated according to apractical approximate relation for the normalized extensionof the length , as in Equation 2.(2)
FIGURE 3. Physical and effective lengths of rectangular microstrip patch.
The effective length of the patch is
and can be calculatedas in Equation 3.
(3)By using the effective dielectric constant (Equation 1) andeffective length (Equation 3), we can calculate theresonance frequency of the antenna f and all the microstripantenna parameters.
Cylindrical-Rectangular Patch Antenna
All the previous work for a conformal rectangularmicrostrip antenna assumed that the curvature does notaffect the effective dielectric constant and the extension onthe length. The effect of curvature on the resonant frequencyhas been presented previously . In this paper we presentthe effect of fringing field on the performance of aconformal patch antenna. A mathematical model thatincludes the effect of curvature on fringing field and onantenna performance is presented. The cylindrical-rectangular patch is the most famous and popular conformalantenna. The manufacturing of this antenna is easy withrespect to spherical and conical antennas.
FIGURE 4: Geometry of cylindrical-rectangular patch antenna
Effect of curvature of conformal antenna on resonantfrequency been presented by Clifford M. Krowne [9, 10] as:(4)Where
is a length of the patch antenna,
is a radius of the cylinder,
is the angle bounded the width of the patch,
represents electric permittivity and
is the magneticpermeability as shown in Figure 4.Joseph A.
, presented an approach to the analysis of microstrip antennas on cylindrical surface. In this approach,the field in terms of surface current is calculated, whileconsidering dielectric layer around the cylindrical body. Theassumption is only valid if radiation is smaller than storedenergy. Kwai
. gave a brief analysis of a thincylindrical-rectangular microstrip patch antenna whichincludes resonant frequencies, radiation patterns, inputimpedances and
factors. The effect of curvature on thecharacteristics of
modes is also presented inKwai
. paper. The authors first obtained the electricfield under the curved patch using the cavity model and thencalculated the far field by considering the equivalentmagnetic current radiating in the presence of cylindricalsurface. The cavity model, used for the analysis is only validfor a very thin dielectric. Also, for much small thicknessthan a wavelength and the radius of curvature, only
modes are assumed to exist. In order to calculate theradiation patterns of cylindrical-rectangular patch antenna.
The authors introduced the exact Green’s function approach.
Using Equation (4), they obtained expressions for the far