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Image Transforms have the ability to compress images into forms that are much more conducive for the purpose of image recognition. Palm Print Recognition is an area where the usage of such techniques would be extremely conducive due to the prominence of important recognition characteristics such as ridges and lines. Our paper applies the Discrete Cosine Transform, the Eigen Vector Transform, the Haar Transform, the Slant Transform, the Hartley Transform, the Kekre Transform and the Walsh Transform on a two sets of 4000 Palm Print images and checks the accuracy of obtaining the correct match between both the sets. On obtaining Fractional Coefficients, it was found that for the D.C.T., Haar, Walsh and Eigen Transform the accuracy was over 94%. The Slant, Hartley and Kekre transform required a different processing of fractional coefficients and resulted with maximum accuracies of 88%, 94% and 89% respectively.

Image Transforms have the ability to compress images into forms that are much more conducive for the purpose of image recognition. Palm Print Recognition is an area where the usage of such techniques would be extremely conducive due to the prominence of important recognition characteristics such as ridges and lines. Our paper applies the Discrete Cosine Transform, the Eigen Vector Transform, the Haar Transform, the Slant Transform, the Hartley Transform, the Kekre Transform and the Walsh Transform on a two sets of 4000 Palm Print images and checks the accuracy of obtaining the correct match between both the sets. On obtaining Fractional Coefficients, it was found that for the D.C.T., Haar, Walsh and Eigen Transform the accuracy was over 94%. The Slant, Hartley and Kekre transform required a different processing of fractional coefficients and resulted with maximum accuracies of 88%, 94% and 89% respectively.

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A Comprehensive Comparison of the Performance of Fractional Coefficients of ImageTransforms for Palm Print Recognition

Abstract Image Transforms have the ability to compress images into forms that are much more conducive for the purpose of image recognition. Palm Print Recognition is an area where the usage of such techniques would be extremely conducive due to the prominence of important recognition characteristics such as ridges and lines. Our paper applies the Discrete Cosine Transform, the Eigen Vector Transform, the Haar Transform, the Slant Transform, the Hartley Transform, the Kekre Transform and the Walsh Transform on a two sets of 4000 Palm Print images and checks the accuracy of obtaining the correct match between both the sets. On obtaining Fractional Coefficients, it was found that for the D.C.T., Haar, Walsh and Eigen Transform the accuracy was over 94%. The Slant, Hartley and Kekre transform required a different processing of fractional coefficients and resulted with maximum accuracies of 88%, 94% and 89% respectively. Keywords: Palm Print, Walsh, Haar, DCT, Hartley, Slant, Kekre, Eigen Vector, Image Transform

I.

I

NTRODUCTION

Palm Print Recognition is slowly increasing in use asone highly effective technique in the field of Biometrics.One can attribute this to the fact that most Palm PrintRecognition techniques have been obtained from tried andtested Fingerprint analysis methods [2]. The techniquesgenerally involve testing on certain intrinsic patterns thatare seen on the surface of the palm.The palm prints are obtained using special Palm PrintCapture Devices. The friction ridge impressions [3]obtained from these palm prints are then subjected to anumber of tests related to identifying principal line, ridge,minutiae point, singular point and texture analysis[2][4][5][6]. The image obtained from the Capture deviceshowever, is one that contains the entire hand and thus,software cropping methods are implemented in order toextract only the region of the hand that contains the palm

print. This region, located on the hand’s inner surface is

called the Region of Interest (R.O.I.) [10][11][12][13].Figure 1 shows us just how a Region of Interest is obtainedfrom a friction ridge impression.

Fig.1 A on the left is a 2D-PalmPrint image from the Capture Device. B isthe ROI image extricated from A and used for processing [3].

II.

L

ITERATURE

R

EVIEW

Palm Print Recognition like most Biometrics techniquesconstitutes the application of high performance algorithmsover large databases of pre-existing images. Thus, itinvolves ensuring high accuracy over extremely largedatabanks and ensuring no dips in accuracy at the sametime. Often, images with bad quality seem to ruin theaccuracy of tests. Recognition techniques should also berobust enough to withstand such aberrations. As of now,literature based techniques involves the usage of obtainingthe raw palm print data and subjecting it to transformationsin order to transform it into a form that can be more easilyused for recognition. This means that the data is to bearranged into feature vectors and then comparing calledcoding based techniques which are similar to thoseimplemented in this paper. Other techniques include usingline features in the palm print and appearance basedtechniques such as Linear Discriminant Analysis (L.D.A.)which are quicker but much less accurate techniques.Transforms are coding models which are used on a widescale in video/image processing. They are the discretecounterparts of continuous Fourier-related transforms.Every pixel in an image has a high amount of correlationthat it shares with its neighbouring pixels. Thus, one can

find out a great deal about a pixel’s value if one checks this

inherent correlation between a pixel and its surroundingpixels. By doing so, we can even correctly obtain the valueof a pixel [1]. A transform is a paradigm that on applicationto such an image de-correlates the data. It does so byobtaining the correlation seen between a pixel and itsneighbours and then concentrating the entropy of thosepixels into one densely packed block of data. In mosttransformation techniques, we see that the data is found tobe compressed into one or more particular corners. Theseareas that have a greater concentration of entropy can thenbe cropped out. Such cropped out portions are termed asfractional coefficients. It is seen that performing pattern

Aditya A. Tirodkar

B.E. (Comps) StudentThadomal Shahani Engg.College,Bandra (W), Mumbai-50,India.

Dr. Tanuja K. Sarode

Asst. ProfessorThadomal Shahani Engg.College,Bandra (W), Mumbai-50,India.

Dr. H. B. Kekre

Sr. Professor,

MPSTME, SVKM’s

NMIMS (Deemed-to-beUniversity, Vileparle(W),Mumbai-56, India.

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 201184http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

recognition on these cropped out images provides us with amuch greater accuracy than with the entire image.Fractional Coefficients are generally obtained as given inFigure 2.

Figure 2. The coloured regions correspond to the fractional coefficientscropped from the original image, seen in black.

There are a number of such transforms that have beenresearched that provide us with these results. Some of themcan be applied to Palm Print Recognition. In our paper, weapply a few of these transforms and check their accuracy forpalm print recognition. The transforms we are using includethe Discrete Cosine Transform, the P.C.A. Eigen VectorTransform, the Haar Transform, the Slant Transform, theHartley Transform, the Kekre Transform and the WalshTransform.III.

I

MPLEMENTATION

Before we get to the actual implementation of thealgorithm, let us see some pre-processing activities. Firstly,the database used consists of 8000 greyscale images of 128x128 resolution which contain the ROI of the palmprintsof the right hand of 400 people. It was obtained from theHong Kong Polytechnic University 2D_3D Database [7].Here, each subject had ten palm prints taken initially. Afteran average time of one month, the same subject had to comeand provide the palm prints again. Our testing set involvedthe first set of 4000 images from which query images wereextracted and the second involved the next 4000. All theseprocessing mechanisms were carried out in MATLABR2010a. The total size of data structures and variables usedtotalled more than 1.07 GB.One key technique that helped a great deal was theapplication of histogram equalization on the images in orderto make the ridges and lines seem more prominent as seenin Figure 3. These characteristics are highly important asthey form the backbone of most Palm Print Recognitiontechnique parameters. In our findings, we have implicitlyapplied histogram equalization on all images. Without it,accuracy was found to be as low as 74% at average withmost transforms. On the application of histogramequalization, it was found to increase to 94% in certaincases.

Figure 3. Histogram Equalized Image

IV.

A

LGORITHM

For our analysis, we carried out a set of operations onthe databank mentioned above. The exact nature of theseoperations has been stated below in the form of analgorithm:

Step 1

: Obtain the Query Image and perform HistogramEqualization on it.

Step 2

: Apply the required Transformation on it.Now, this image is to be compared against a training setof 4000 images. These images constitute the images in thedatabase that were taken a month later.

Step 1

: Obtain the Image Matrix for all images in thetraining set and perform Histogram Equalization on it.

Step 2

: Apply the required Transform on each Image.

Step 3

: Calculate the mean square error between eachImage in the Training set and the query image. If partialenergy coefficients are used, calculate the error betweenonly that part of the images which falls inside the fractionalcoefficient. The image with the minimum mean square erroris the closest match.V.

T

RANSFORMS

Before providing the results of our study, first let usobtain a brief understanding of the plethora of transformsthat are going to be applied in our study.

A.

Discrete Cosine Transform

A discrete cosine Transform (DCT) is an extension of the fast Fourier Transform that works only in the realdomain. It represents a sequence of finitely arranged datapoints in terms of cosine functions oscillating at differentfrequencies. It is of great use in compression and is oftenused to provide boundary functions for differentialequations and are hence, used greatly in science andengineering. The DCT is found to be symmetric, orthogonaland separable [1].

B.

Haar Transform

The Haar transform is the oldest and possibly thesimplest wavelet basis. [9] [8]. Like the Fourier Analysisbasis, it consists of square shaped functions whichrepresents functions in the orthonormal function basis. AHaar Wavelet used both high-pass filtering and low-passfiltering and works by incorporating image decompositionon first he image rows and then the image columns. Inessence, the Haar transform is one which when applied to

256256

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 201185http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

an image provides us with a representation of the frequency

as well as the location of an image’s pixels.

It can thus beconsidered integral to the creation of the Discrete WaveletTransforms.

C.

Eigen Transform

The Eigen transform is a newer transform that is usuallyused as an integral component of Principal ComponentAnalysis (P.C.A.). The Eigen Transform is unique as in itprovides essentially a measure of roughness calculated froma pixels surrounding a particular pixel. The magnitudespecified which each such measure provides us with detailsrelated to the frequency of the information [18][14]. All thishelps us to obtain a clearer picture of the texture containedin an image. The Eigen transform is generally given byEquation 1:

()√ ()

D.

Walsh Transform

The Walsh Transform is a square matrix withdimensions in the power of 2. The entries of the matrix areeither +1 or -1. The Walsh matrix has the property that thedot product of and two distinct rows or columns is zero. AWalsh Transform is derived from a Hadamard matrix of acorresponding order by first applying reversal permutationand then Gray Code permutation. The Walsh matrix is thusa version of the Hadamard transform that can be used muchmore efficiently in signal processing operations [19].

E.

Hartley Transform

The Discrete Hartley Transform was first proposed byRobert Bracewell in 1983. It is an alternative to the FourierTransform that is faster and has the ability to transform animage in the real domain into a transformed image that toostays in the real domain. Thus, it remedies the FourierTransforms problem of converting real data into real andcomplex variants of it. A Hartley matrix is also its owninverse. For the Hartley Matrix we had to use a differentmethod to calculate the fractional coefficients. This isbecause it polarizes the entropy of the image in all fourcorners instead of the one corner as seen with mosttransforms [15][16][17].

F.

Kekre Transform

The Kekre Transform is the generic version of Kekre’s

LUV color space matrix. Unlike other matrix transforms,

the Kekre transform does not require the matrix’s order to

be a power of 2. In the Kekre matrix, it is seen that all upperdiagonal and diagonal elements are one while the lowerdiagonal elements below the sub diagonal are all zero. Thediagonal elements are of the form

–

N+ (x-1) where N is theorder of the matrix and x is the row coordinate [19]. TheKekre Transform essentially works as a high contrastmatrix. Thus, results with the Kekre Transform aregenerally not as high as others. It too serves merely forexperimental purposes.

G.

Slant Transform

The Slant Transform is an orthonormal basis set of basisvectors specially designed for an efficient representation of those images that have uniform or approximately constantchanging gray level coherence over a considerable distanceof area. The Slant Transform basis can be considered to be asawtooth waveform that changes uniformly with distanceand represents a gradual increase of brightness. It satisfiesthe main aim of a transform to compact the image energyinto as few of the transform components as possible. Wehave applied the Fast Slant Transform Algorithm to obtainit [20]. Like the Kekre, Hartley and Hadamard transforms, ittoo does not provide a good accuracy with the use of conventional fractional coefficient techniques [2]. For it, wehave removed the fractional coefficient from the centre.VI.

R

ESULTS

The results obtained for each transform with respect totheir fractional coefficients are given in Table 1. CertainTransforms required a different calculation of fractionalcoefficients in order to optimize their accuracy. Thesetransforms are given in Table 2 with their correspondingfractional coefficients.

(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 201186http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500