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Secured Dynamic Source Routing (SDSR) Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

Secured Dynamic Source Routing (SDSR) Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks

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Published by ijcsis
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically shaping a provisional network devoid of the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized management. In MANETs, security is the major challenge due to the dynamic topology which is because of the mobility of the nodes. In this paper, we propose to design and develop a secure methodology incorporated with the routing mechanism without having any compromise on the performance metrics viz., throughput, and packet delivery fraction. Not only just improving the throughput and packet delivery fraction it will also reduce the end-to-end delay and MAC overhead along with reduced packet loss. We name it as Secured-Dynamic Source Routing (SDSR) protocol. It adopts several features of the already existing protocol named Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). The simulation results prove that our proposed protocol SDSR outperforms DSR in all performance aspects.
A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically shaping a provisional network devoid of the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized management. In MANETs, security is the major challenge due to the dynamic topology which is because of the mobility of the nodes. In this paper, we propose to design and develop a secure methodology incorporated with the routing mechanism without having any compromise on the performance metrics viz., throughput, and packet delivery fraction. Not only just improving the throughput and packet delivery fraction it will also reduce the end-to-end delay and MAC overhead along with reduced packet loss. We name it as Secured-Dynamic Source Routing (SDSR) protocol. It adopts several features of the already existing protocol named Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). The simulation results prove that our proposed protocol SDSR outperforms DSR in all performance aspects.

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Secured Dynamic Source Routing (SDSR)Protocol for Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
 Dr. S. Santhosh Baboo
Reader, PG & Research Dept. of Computer Applications,D.G.Vaishnav College,Chennai, Indiasanthos2001@sify.com 
S. Ramesh
Research Scholar,Dravidian University,Kuppam, Andra Pradesh, Indiasrameshdu@gmail.com 
 Abstract
 A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) is a collection of wireless mobile nodes dynamically shaping a provisional network devoid of the use of any existing network infrastructure or centralized management. In MANETs, security is the major challenge due to thedynamic topology which is because of the mobility of the nodes. Inthis paper, we propose to design and develop a secure methodologyincorporated with the routing mechanism without having anycompromise on the performance metrics viz., throughput, and packet delivery fraction. Not only just improving the throughput and packet delivery fraction it will also reduce the end-to-end delay and MAC overhead along with reduced packet loss. We name it as Secured- Dynamic Source Routing (SDSR) protocol. It adopts several featuresof the already existing protocol named Dynamic Source Routing(DSR). The simulation results prove that our proposed protocolSDSR outperforms DSR in all performance aspects.
 I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
The alluring infrastructure-less phenomenon of mobile adhoc networks (MANETs) has received more attention in theresearch society. With the success of solving the mostfundamental but vital issues in all network layers, personsunderstand there is commercial value in MANETs. The most of the applications that draw attention for utilizing in currentwired networks (e.g., video conferencing, on-line live movies,and instant messenger with camera enabled) would attractinterest for MANETs. Though, MANETs present distinctiveadvanced challenges, including the design of protocols formobility management, effective routing, data transportation,security, power managing, and quality-of-service (QoS). Oncethese issues are resolved, the use of MANETs will beattainable. Nowadays applications heavily demand thefulfilment of their Quality of Service (QoS) requirements,which in this distributed and particular environment can bedifficult to solve. This scenario requires specific proposalsadapted to the new problem statements [3, 5, 12]. Trying tosolve all these problems and coming out with a single solutionwould be too complex. To offer bandwidth-guaranteed QoS,the available end-to-end bandwidth along a route from thesource to the destination must be known. The end-to-endthroughput is a concave parameter [15], which is determinedby the bottleneck bandwidth of the intermediate hosts in theroute. A survey of several routing protocols and theirperformance comparisons have been reported in [4]. Hence inthis paper, we focus on providing security along with QoS inMANETs.In order to design good protocols for MANETs, it isimportant to understand the fundamental properties of thesenetworks.
 Dynamicity:
Every node in the mobile ad hoc network will change its position on its own. Hence prediction of thetopology is difficult, and the network status is not clear and it isvague.
 Noncentralization:
There is no existence of centralizedcontrol in mobile ad hoc network and, hence assigningresources to MANET in advance is not possible.
 Radio properties:
The medium is wireless, hence resultsin fading, multipath effects, time variation, etc. With thesecomplications, Hard QoS is not easy to achieve.II.
 
R
ELATED
 
WORKS
First, In [9] Zhao et al have reviewed the existingapproaches of available bandwidth estimation. They presentedthe efforts and challenges in estimation of bandwidth. Also,they proposed a model for finding available bandwidth withimproved accuracy of sensing based bandwidth estimation aswell as prediction of available bandwidth.In [17] Gui et al have defined routing optimality with theusage of different metrics like path length, energy consumptionand energy aware load balancing within the hosts. Along withthey have proposed a methodology for self-healing andoptimizing routing (SHORT) technique for MANET. SHORTincreases performance with regard to bandwidth and latency.They classified SHORT into two categories such as Path-Aware SHORT and Energy-Aware SHORT.The QAMNet [14] approach extends existing ODMRProuting by introducing traffic prioritization, distributedresource probing and admission control mechanisms to provideQoS multicasting. For available bandwidth estimation, it used
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 201190http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
1
the same method given in SWAN [7] where the threshold ratefor real-time flows is computed and the available bandwidthestimated as the deference between the threshold rate of real-time traffic and the current rate of real-time traffic. It is verydifficult to estimate the threshold rate accurately because thethreshold rate may change dynamically depending on trafficpattern [7]. The value of threshold rate should be chosen in asensible way: Choosing a value that is too high results in a poorperformance of real-time flows, and choosing a value that istoo low results in the denial of real-time flows for which theavailable resource would have sufficed.The localization methods are also distinguished by theirform of computation, “centralized” or “decentralized”. Forexample, MDS-MAP [6] is a centralized localization thatcalculates the relative positions of all the nodes based onconnectivity information by Multidimensional Scaling (MDS).Similarly, DWMDS (Dynamic Weighted MDS) [11] usesmovement constraints in addition to the connectivityinformation, and estimates the trajectories of mobile nodes.TRACKIE [13] first estimates mobile nodes that were likely tomove between landmarks straight. Based on their estimatedtrajectories, it estimates the trajectories of the other nodes.Since these centralized algorithms use all the information aboutconnectivity between nodes and compute the trajectories off-line, the estimation accuracy is usually better thandecentralized methods.In decentralized methods, the position of each node iscomputed by the node itself or cooperation with the othernodes. For example, APIT [16] assumes a set of trianglesformed by landmarks, checks whether a node is located insideor outside of each triangle, and estimates its location.Amorphous [8] and REP [2] assume that location informationis sent through multi-hop relay from landmarks, and each nodeestimates its positions based on hop counts from landmarks. Inparticular, REP first detects holes in an isotropic sensornetwork, and then estimates the distance between nodesaccurately considering the holes. In MCL [15], each mobilenode manages its Area of Presence (AoP) and refines its AoPwhenever it encounters a landmark. In UPL [1], each mobilenode estimates its AoP accurately based on AoP received fromits neighboring nodes and obstacle information.III.
 
P
ROPOSED
 
WORK
 In order to implement QoS, we propose to develop aprotocol which guarantees QoS along with secure dynamicsource routing. In all the available existing protocols withregard to security, QoS requirements were compromised. Weaim to develop a security enriched protocol which does notcompromise with QoS requirements. For achieving the abovegoal we design a framework which uses estimation of ‘bandwidth’, estimation of ‘residual energy’, ‘threshold value’.
 A.
 
 Bandwidth Estimation
The bandwidth can be estimated as follows
Packet Delivery Time
d
) = Ø
r
- Ø
s
 
Where Ø
r
is Packet Received Time,Ø
s
is Packet Sent Time
 Bandwidth=
D
S
/ Ø
d
 
(1)Where D
S
is Data Size.Bandwidth is the ratio between Size of the Data and Actualtime taken to deliver the packet.In following two cases Bandwidth gets reduced.
 
When there is more channel contention i.e.,Channel sensing busy due to more Request ToSend (RTS) / Clear To Send (CTS) , collisionsand higher backoffs.
 
When there are more channel errors i.e., error bitsin RTS/DATA which causes RTS/DATAretransmission.
 B.
 
 Residual Energy
The Residual Energy [10] is calculated as follows:RE
node
= IE
node
– CE
node
 
2Where IEnode is the Initial Energy of the node and CEnodeis the Consumed Energy of the node. The residual energy of anode is the difference between initial energy and consumedenergy.
C.
 
SDSR Routing
'Secured Dynamic Source Routing' (SDSR) is a routingprotocol for MANETs. Our protocol SDSR uses distinctrouting methodology. In which all the routing information isretained (updated again and again) at nodes. SDSR has onlytwo foremost phases. They are Route Discovery and RouteMaintenance. To identify source routes need collecting theaddress of each node from the source node to destination nodein the course of route discovery. When the route discoveryprocess is initiated, the two state-of-the art estimations such asbandwidth and residual energy will be calculated using (1) and(2). For making the reliable path, we have fixed the optimumbandwidth value to be 0.5 mbps. This optimum value will besuitable for the higher end applications like video-conferencing. The collected path information is cached bynodes which processes the route discovery packets. The pathwill be identified if the bandwidth is greater than or equal to0.5 mbps so as to have more reliable path which assures QoS.The identified paths are used to route the packets. To achievesecured source routing, the routed packets will have the addressof each node the packet will pass through. This may cause highoverhead for longer paths in large scale mobile ad hoc network.To eliminate source routing, our SDSR protocol creates astream id option which allows packets to be delivered based ona hop-by-hop basis.Route Reply would only be produced when the messagehas reached the projected destination node. To send back theRoute Reply, the destination node should have a route to thesource node. The route would be used when the route is in theDestination Node's route cache. Or else, the node will turnround the route based on the route record in the Route Replymessage header.
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 201191http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 
The Route Maintenance Phase will be started when there isan occurrence of incurable communication or when an Intrudernode was identified using IDM. During above situation theRoute Error packets are started at a node. The mistaken hopwill be deleted from the node's route cache; all routes havingthe hop are terminated at that point. Once more, the RouteDiscovery Phase is started to find the most viable route.
 D.
 
 Intruder Detection Methodology (IDM)
After calculating the path in which packets are to berouted, the source node will forward certain number packets tothe next hop (node). The number of packets thus sent to thefirst hop will be set as threshold value. Thus obtainedthreshold value will be verified at every node in the path beforedespatching the packets. And if any of the node in the path hasgot different value other than that of threshold value then theyare treated as Intruder and the path is rediscovered with thenew threshold value and discarding the intruder node. Onceagain the above process is repeated till such time it reaches thedestination node.When the non-availability of a route to the next node, thenode instantly updates the succession count and broadcasts theknowledge to its neighbors. When a node gets routingknowledge then it verifies in its routing table. If it does nothave such entry into the routing table then updates the routingtable with routing information it has obtained. If the node findsthat it has already had an entry into its routing table then itcompares the succession count of the received information withthe routing table entry and updates the information. If it hassuccession count that is less than that of the received one then itrejects the information with the least succession count. Supposeboth the succession counts are one and the same then the nodekeeps the information that has the shortest route or the leastnumber of hops to that destination.IV.
 
P
ERFORMANCE
M
ETRICS
 
 Average end-to-end delay:
The end-to-end-delay isaveraged over all surviving data packets from the sources to thedestinations.
 Average Packet Delivery Ratio:
It is the ratio of the numberof packets received successfully and the total number of packets sent.
Throughput:
It is the number of packets receivedsuccessfully.
 Drop:
It is the number of packets dropped.V.
 
R
ESULTS
 
A
ND
D
ISCUSSIONS
 Figure 1 gives the throughput of both the protocols whenthe pause time is increased. As we can see from the figure, thethroughput is more in the case of SDSR than DSR. Figure 2presents the packet delivery ratio of both the protocols. Sincethe packet drop is less and the throughput is more, SDSRachieves good delivery ratio, compared to DSR. From Figure3, we can ensure that the packets dropped are less for SDSRwhen compared to DSR. From Figure 4, we can see that theaverage end-to-end delay of the proposed SDSR protocol isless when compared to the DSR protocol.
Fig.1. Pausetime Vs ThroughputFig.2. Pausetime Vs Packet Delivery RatioFig.3. Pausetime Vs Packets DroppedFig.4. Pausetime Vs End-to-End Delay
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 201192http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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