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Retrieving Unrecognized Objects from HSV into JPEG Video at various Light Resolutions

Retrieving Unrecognized Objects from HSV into JPEG Video at various Light Resolutions

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Published by ijcsis
This paper deals mainly with the performance study and analysis of image retrieval techniques for retrieving unrecognized objects from an image using Hyper spectral camera at low light resolution. Since the identification of moving object in a camera is not possible in a low light environment as the object has low reflectance due to lack of lights. Using Hyper spectral data cubes, each object can be identified on the basis of object luminosity. Moving object can be identified by identifying the variation in frame value. The main work identified are that efficient retrieval of unrecognized objects in an image will be made possible using Hyper spectral analysis and various other methods such as Estimation of Reflectance, Feature and mean shift tracker, Traced feature located on image, Band pass filter (Background removal) etc. These methods used above to retrieve unrecognized object from a low light resolution are found to be more efficient in comparison with the other image retrieval techniques.
This paper deals mainly with the performance study and analysis of image retrieval techniques for retrieving unrecognized objects from an image using Hyper spectral camera at low light resolution. Since the identification of moving object in a camera is not possible in a low light environment as the object has low reflectance due to lack of lights. Using Hyper spectral data cubes, each object can be identified on the basis of object luminosity. Moving object can be identified by identifying the variation in frame value. The main work identified are that efficient retrieval of unrecognized objects in an image will be made possible using Hyper spectral analysis and various other methods such as Estimation of Reflectance, Feature and mean shift tracker, Traced feature located on image, Band pass filter (Background removal) etc. These methods used above to retrieve unrecognized object from a low light resolution are found to be more efficient in comparison with the other image retrieval techniques.

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Retrieving unrecognized objects from HSV into jpeg videoat various light resolutions
 T. Arumuga Maria Devi
1
Nallaperumal Krishnan
2
K.K Sherin
3
 Assistant Professor, Dept. of CITE HOD, SMIEEE, Dept. of CITE P G Scholar, Dept. of CITECentre for Information Technology and EngineeringManonmaniam Sundaranar University, Tirunelveli
.
1
2
3
.PhoneNo:9677996337PhoneNo: 9443117397PhoneNo:9442055500
Abstract
 — 
 
This paper deals mainly with the performance study andanalysis of image retrieval techniques for retrieving unrecognized objectsfrom an image using Hyper spectral camera at low light resolution. Sincethe identification of moving object in a camera is not possible in a lowlight environment as the object has low reflectance due to lack of lights.Using Hyper spectral data cubes, each object can be identified on thebasis of object luminosity. Moving object can be identified by identifyingthe variation in frame value. The main work identified are that efficientretrieval of unrecognized objects in an image will be made possible usingHyper spectral analysis and various other methods such as Estimation of Reflectance, Feature and mean shift tracker, Traced feature located onimage, Band pass filter (Background removal) etc. These methods usedabove to retrieve unrecognized object from a low light resolution arefound to be more efficient in comparison with the other image retrievaltechniques.
Keywords
 — 
 
Anomaly suspect, mean shift algorithms,spectral detection, .
I.
 
I
NTRODUCTION
 he process of recovering unrecognized objects froman image in low light is a trivial task which finds itsneed in recognizing objects from a distant location.Since there is a need in retrieving unrecognized objects fromthe image, some form of object extraction method from animage is necessary. The application of detecting objects froman image is as follows. Here, we focus on the problem of tracking objects through challenging conditions, such astracking objects at low light where the presence of the objectis difficult to identify. For example, an object which is fastlymoving on a plane surface in an abrupt weather condition isnormally difficult to identify. A new framework thatincorporates emission theory to estimate object reflectanceand the mean shift algorithm to simultaneously track theobject based on its reflectance spectra is proposed. Thecombination of spectral detection and motion predictionenables the tracker to be robust against abrupt motions, andfacilitate fast convergence of the mean shift tracker. Videoimages are moving pictures which are sampled at frequentintervals usually, 25 frames per second and stored as sequenceof frames. A problem, however, is that digital video data ratesare very large, typically in the range of 150
 
Megabits/second.Data rates of this magnitude would
 
consume a lot of thebandwidth in transmission, storage
 
and computing resourcesin the typical personal computer.
 
Hence, to overcome theseissues, Video Compression
 
standards have been developedand intensive research is
 
going on to derive effectivetechniques to eliminate picture redundancy, allowing videoinformation to be transmitted and stored in a compact andefficient manner[6].A video image consists of a time-orderedsequence of frames of still images as in figure 1. Generally,two types of image frames are defined: Intra-frames (I-frames)and Inter-frames (P- frames). I-frames are treated asindependent key images and P-frames are treated as Predictedframes.An obvious solution to video compression would bepredictive coding of P-frames based on previous frames andcompression is made by coding the residual error.Temporalredundancy removal is included in P-frame coding, whereas I-frame coding performs only spatial redundancy removal. II.
 
TECHNIQUEThe problem laid in the past decades in identifying theunrecognized objects from a low light resolution. If the imageis created from a hyper spectral camera, the problem still laidin identifying what actually the object was, since the hyperspectral image detects only the presence of an object, not whatan object actually is. Various reflectance [24] methods wereused in order to obtain the specific property of the image. Butsince the above methods does not specify what the objectproperty was, there should be a method in order to specifywhat the object in an image actually was. Since the imagetaken from a hyper spectral camera suffers from lowresolution, we could not identify what actually the particularobject was, even though it detects the presence of an object.There is a need for image applications in the detection of objects from a distant location. Normally, the image would besuch that the presence of an object could not be detected fromit. But, from a hyper spectral camera, the object, if it was onthat location, could be captured in the hyper spectral camera.Also, an image taken from a hyper spectral camera suffersfrom low resolution and thus does not show the exactproperties of an image. Since the identification of movingobject in a camera is not possible from distant location, toovercome this problem we can use Hyper spectral camera toidentify the object.. Thus, the problem areas are such thatthere should be a methodology in identifying an object from alow light resolution. That
 
is, it should detect the points from ahyper spectral image which are the points that specify theparticular objects in the image by reflectance mechanisms of the object. The next problem is such that if an
 
object is fastlymoving on a plane
 
surface,
 
it is not necessary that the objectwill be present on every frame. The points that resembles theobject in the hyper spectral image should be able to be used inretrieving the objects by using background removal. Relatedto the implementation of transcoding, the work is as follows
.
 
T
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 2011152http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
The objective of this work is to study the relationship betweenthe operational domains for prediction, according to temporalredundancies between the sequences to be encoded. Based onthe motion characteristics of the inter frames, the system willadaptively select the spatial or wavelet domain for prediction.Also the work is to develop a temporal predictor whichexploits the motion information among adjacent frames usingextremely low side information.The proposed temporal predictor has to work without therequirement of the transmission of complete motion vector setand hence much overhead would be reduced due to theomission of motion vectors.
Adaptive Domain Selection
 This step aims to determine the operational mode of videosequence compression according to its motion characteristics.The candidate operational modes are spatial domain andwavelet domain. The wavelet domain is extensively used forcompression due to its excellent energy compaction.However, it is pointed out that motion estimation in thewavelet domain might be inefficient due to shift invariantproperties of wavelet transform. Hence, it is unwise to predictall kinds of video sequences in the spatial domain alone or inthe wavelet domain alone. Hence a method is introduced todetermine the prediction mode of a video sequence adaptivelyaccording to its temporal redundancies. The amount of temporal redundancy is estimated by the inter framecorrelation coefficients of the test video sequence. The interframe correlation coefficient between frames can becalculated. If the inter frame correlation coefficients aresmaller than a predefined threshold, then the sequence islikely to be a high motion video sequence. In this case, motioncompensation and coding the temporal prediction residuals inwavelet domain would be inefficient; therefore, it is wise tooperate on the sequence in the spatial mode. Those sequencesthat have larger inter frame correlation coefficients arepredicted in direct spatial domain. The frames that have moresimilarities with very few motion changes are coded usingtemporal prediction in integer wavelet domain.
Discrete Wavelet Transform
Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) is the most populartransform for image-based application [14], [16], [18]. A 2-dimensional wavelet transform is applied to the original imagein order to decompose it into a series of filtered sub bandimages. At the top left of the image is a low-pass filteredversion of the original and moving to the bottom right, eachcomponent contains progressively higher-frequencyinformation that adds the detail of the image. It is clear thatthe higher-frequency components are relatively sparse, i.e.,many of the coefficients in these components are zero orinsignificant. The wavelet transform is thus an efficient wayof decorrelating or concentrating the important informationinto a few significant coefficients. The wavelet transform isparticularly effective for still image compression and has beenadopted as part of the JPEG 2000 standard [8] and for stillimage texture coding in the MPEG-4 standard.
Temporal Residual Prediction
Motion estimation obtains the motion information byfinding the motion field between the reference frame and thecurrent frame. It exploits temporal redundancy of videosequence, and, as a result, the required storage or transmissionbandwidth is reduced by a factor of four. Block matching isone of the most popular and time consuming methods of motion estimation. This method compares blocks of eachframe with the blocks of its next frame to compute a motionvector for each block; therefore, the next frame can begenerated using the current frame and the motion vectors foreach block of the frame. Block matching algorithm is one of the simplest motion estimation techniques that compare oneblock of the current frame with all of the blocks of the nextframe to decide where the matching block is located.Considering the number of computations that has to be donefor each motion vector, each frame of the video is partitionedinto search windows of size H*W pixels. Each search windowis then divided into smaller macro blocks of size 8*8 or 16*16pixels. To calculate the motion vectors, each block of thecurrent frame must be compared to all of the blocks of thenext frame with in the search range and the Mean AbsoluteDifference (MAD) for each matching block is calculated.Where N*N is the block size, x(i,j) is the pixel values of current frame at (i,j) th position and y(i+m,j+n) is the pixelvalue of reference frame at (i+m,j+n) th position. The block with the minimum value of the Mean Absolute Difference(MAD) is the preferred matching block. The location of thatblock is the motion displacement vector for that block incurrent frame. The motion activities of the neighboring pixelsfor aspecific frame are different but highly correlated sincethey usually characterize very similar motion structures.Therefore, motion information of the pixel p
i
(x,y) can beapproximated by the neighboring pixels in the same frame.The initial motion vector (Vx, Vy) of the current pixel isapproximated by the motion activity of the upper-leftneighboring pixels in the same frame.
Coding the Prediction Residual
The temporal prediction residuals from adaptive predictionare encoded using Huffman codes. Huffman codes are usedfor data compression that will use a variable length codeinstead of a fixed length code, with fewer bits to store thecommon characters, and more bits to store the rare characters.The idea is that the frequently occurring symbols are assignedshort codes and symbols with less frequency are coded usingmore bits. The Huffman code can be constructed using a tree.The probability of each intensity level is computed and acolumn of intensity level with descending probabilities iscreated. The intensities of this column constitute the levels of Huffman code tree. At each step the two tree nodes havingminimal probabilities are connected to form an intermediate
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 2011153http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
node. The probability assigned to this node is the sum of probabilities of the two branches. The procedure is repeateduntil all branches are used and the probability sum is 1.Eachedge in the binary tree, represents either 0 or 1, and each leaf corresponds to the sequence of 0s and 1s traversed to reach aparticular code. Since no prefix is shared, all legal codes are atthe leaves, and decoding a string means following edges,according to the sequence of 0s and 1s in the string, until aleaf is reached. The code words are constructed by traversingthe tree from root to its leaves. At each level 0 is assigned tothe top branch and 1 to the bottom branch. This procedure isrepeated until all the tree leaves are reached. Each leaf corresponds to a unique intensity level. The codeword foreach intensity level consists of 0s and 1s that exist in the pathfrom the root to the specific leaf.
 
III.
 
DATAThe problem areas are divided as follows:1.
 
Identifying objects in skylight (during night)2.
 
To ensure frame clarityThe problems related to identifying the object at skylight ishandled by the following methods: The first method uses thereflection property of the objects. Since the reflectionproperties of various objects are different, then it means thatvarious emissions are been made by different objects and bythis way, the objects can be identified by these differentenergy emissions. The second method such as the spectralfeature analysis is used to analyze the spectral images. This isused to identify the background from the object since thebackground is a constant. The third method is mean shifttracking algorithm. This is used to identify the presence of theobject in different frames to know whether the object ismoving or not. The fourth method is the tracking algorithmwhich is used to detect the background and the objects inorder to know the presence of objects. The fifth method suchas target representation is used to
 
detect the object at aparticular
 
target. It uses methods which compares the
 
threshold values to
 
distinguish between background and theobject in order to identify it. The threshold value will be set toa value. If the value is less than the threshold, then it will be abackground else it will be an object.Lossless JPEG transcoding has many other relevantapplications besides reencoding and rotating. For example, itcan be used by editing software to avoid a quality loss in theunedited parts of the image. With some additionalmodifications, it can also be used to perform other simplegeometric transformations on JPEG compressed images, likecropping or mirroring.
 
Usage of the JPEG file format and theHuffman encoding, nothing else from the JPEG algorithm,therefore the compression scheme is lossless.IV.
 
FIGURES
Figure 1. Background removed from a frameFigure 2. Background removed from another frameFigure 3. Object tracing
(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 10, October 2011154http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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