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VOC's - Maik A

VOC's - Maik A

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Published by api-3861299
In-tube extraction for enrichment of volatile organic hydrocarbons
from aqueous samples
In-tube extraction for enrichment of volatile organic hydrocarbons
from aqueous samples

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Published by: api-3861299 on Oct 19, 2008
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Available online at www.sciencedirect.com
Journal of Chromatography A, 1179 (2008) 96\u2013105
In-tube extraction for enrichment of volatile organic hydrocarbons
from aqueous samples
Maik A. Jochmanna, Xue Yuanb, Beat Schillingc, Torsten C. Schmidta,\u2217
aInstrumental Analytical Chemistry, University Duisburg-Essen, Lotharstrasse 1, D-47048 Duisburg, Germany
bCenter for Applied Geoscience (ZAG), Eberhard Karls-Universit \u00a8
at Tuebingen, H \u00a8
olderlinstrasse 10, D-72076 Tuebingen, Germany
cBGB Analytik AG, Lettenstrasse 97, 8134 Adliswil, Switzerland
Received 30 July 2007; received in revised form 26 November 2007; accepted 28 November 2007
Available online 3 December 2007

In-tube extraction (ITEX) is a novel solventless extraction technique in which a headspace syringe with a needle body \ufb01lled with a sorbent (here: Tenax TA) is used. The analytes are extracted from sample headspace by dynamic extraction. The needle body is surrounded by a separate heater, which is used for thermal desorption of analytes into the injection port of a GC system. We report here for the \ufb01rst time the optimization and evaluation of a fully automated analytical method based on ITEX. As target analytes, 19 common groundwater contaminants such as halogenated volatiles and monoaromatic compounds have been chosen. Method related parameters such as extraction temperature, number of extraction cycles, extraction and desorption volume as well as extraction and desorption \ufb02ow rates were investigated in detail. The linear dynamic range of the ITEX method ranged over six orders of magnitude between 0.028\ue000g/L and 1218\ue000g/L with linear correlation coef\ufb01cients between 0.990 and 0.998 for the investigated compounds. Method detection limits for monoaromatic compounds were between 28 ng/L (ethylbenzene) and 68 ng/L (1,2,4-trimethylbenzene). For halogenated volatile organic compounds, method detection limits between 48 ng/L (chloroform) and 799 ng/L (dichloromethane) were obtained. The precision of the method with external calibration was between 3.1% (chloroform ethylbenzene) and 7.4% (1,2,3-trimethylbenzene).

\u00a9 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Keywords:In-tube extraction (ITEX); VOC; Water analysis; GC; Mass spectrometry
1. Introduction

Around 15 years ago solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was introduced as solventless equilibrium microextraction method[1]. Since than, other related microextraction meth- ods such as stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE), liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) and several in-tube or in-needle extrac- tion techniques were developed to overcome some \ufb01ber related drawbacks such as \ufb01ber fragility, diminished lifetimes of polar coating materials and low sorption capacities[2]. In-tube or in- needle extraction techniques roughly can be divided in methods that apply a coating on the inner surface or a sorbent mate- rial packed inside a tube or a needle. Methods with sorbent packings, such as in-tube extraction (ITEX) offer the advantage that a variety of commercially available sorbent materials and higher amounts of sorbent material can be used to obtain higher

\u2217Corresponding author. Tel.: +49 203 379 3311/3308; fax: +49 203 379 2108.
E-mail address:torsten.schmidt@uni-due.de(T.C. Schmidt).

extraction yields than possible with coated extraction phases. Early approaches used gas chromatography capillary columns such as so called open tubular traps (OTTs)[3]. A very sim- ilar method is known as in-tube SPME, which was originally developed in combination with HPLC[4] for the determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons[5] and pesticides[6]. A shorter capillary with a sol\u2013gel coating (sol\u2013gel CME) was used by Bigham et al. for determination of compounds such as poly- cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), aldehydes and ketones as well as for more polar compounds such as phenols, alcohols and amines[7]. Other in-tube techniques such as in-capillary extrac- tion (INCAT)[8] or solid-phase dynamic extraction (SPDE)

[9\u201311]use a needle as support for the extraction phase. These

needle-based methods have the advantage that thermal desorp- tion can be carried out directly in the injection port of a gas chromatograph and the whole process can easily be implemented in an autosampler. To achieve higher extraction yields, efforts were made to increase the amount of extraction phase by apply- ing packed sorbent materials. A method to determine BTEX [toluene, ethylbenzene, propylbenzene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene

0021-9673/$ \u2013 see front matter \u00a9 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
M.A. Jochmann et al. / J. Chromatogr. A 1179 (2008) 96\u2013105
Fig. 1. Schematic overview of the different operation steps of the ITEX method. The left part shows the dynamic extraction of the sample headspace. In the middle
part, the thermal desorption into the injector by heating the desorber is shown. In the right part, the heated trap is cleaned by \ufb02ushing with nitrogen.

(1,2,4-TMB), benzene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (1,3,5-TMB), 1,2,3-trimethylbenzene (1,2,3-TMB),para-xylene] compounds that applies a sorbent bed was developed by Berezkin et al.

[12]. Another needle-based device that uses a packed sorbent

is the needle trap (NT) by Wang et al.[13] and a simi- lar needle extraction device for GC/MS analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was presented by Saito et al., by using a copolymer bed of methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate[14]. The here presented ITEX method enhances the advantages of previous needle-based methods by applying a stainless steel needle that is divided into two parts. As shown in the schematic illustration of the ITEX proce- dure inFig. 1, the lower part consists of an ordinary needle canula with a hole on the side for septum penetration. The upper part with a bigger diameter contains the sorbent mate- rial.

For extraction, the syringe plunger is moved up and down with an adjusted syringe barrel volume (extraction volume) and a \ufb01xed plunger speed, resulting in an adjustable extraction \ufb02ow rate.

Additionally, the upper part of the ITEX needle is surrounded by a heater for thermal desorption after extraction is completed. Before desorption, a \ufb01xed volume of helium was aspirated into the syringe as desorption volume. Than the desorber was heated up rapidly to the desorption temperature and the desorption volume was ejected with a \ufb01xed desorption \ufb02ow rate into the injector port of the GC system (seeFig. 2). The advantage of the external thermal desorption outside the GC injector is the inde-

pendency from the injector temperature pro\ufb01le, thus offering a gradient free desorption. After thermal desorption, the sorbent material is \ufb02ushed with nitrogen at an elevated temperature for cleaning. In this study, Tenax TA was used as packing material for extraction of the target analytes. The ability to apply rela- tively high amounts of a variety of packing materials already used for decades, e.g., in air sampling or in purge&trap anal- ysis, is a special advantage of the method and opens a wide range of applications to various compound classes with different polarities.

In this work, ITEX was evaluated for the determination of 19 priority groundwater pollutants[15,16] such as volatile halo- genated hydrocarbons [dichloromethane (DCM), chloroform, carbon tetrachloride (CT), bromoform, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,2-dibromoethane,cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE),trans- 1,2-dichloroethylene (trans-DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), tetrachloroethylene (PCE)] and BTEX compounds. All of these compounds have adverse effects to environmental systems and human health and some of the compounds are known or probable human carcinogens[17].

The main objective was to evaluate a sensitive, robust method that applies a solid sorbent material as extraction phase. To this end, in this work the evaluation of (i) the most important extrac- tion and desorption parameters, as well as (ii) the determination of validation parameters such as method detection limits and precisions for volatile organic compounds was carried out. For the optimization a priority was set on a balance between maximal sensitivity and adequate extraction time.

M.A. Jochmann et al. / J. Chromatogr. A 1179 (2008) 96\u2013105
Fig. 2. Full-scan chromatogram of the 19 chlorinated volatile hydrocarbons and BTEX target compounds with a combination of reconstructed ion chromatograms
of a 5\ue000g/L standard solution under optimized conditions. Quanti\ufb01erm/z and retention times are given inTable 2.
2. Experimental
2.1. Reagents

Methanol (99.9 %) from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany) was used to prepare stock solutions. As solvent for the preparation of standard solutions, Milli-Q water from a Milli- Q Plus water puri\ufb01cation system (Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA) was used. Trichloroethylene (99.5%), dichloromethane (\u226599.9%) and toluene (99.9%) were obtained from Merck (Darmstadt, Germany).cis-DCE (97%),trans-DCE (98%), TCE (99.9+%), bromoform (99+%), 1,2-dichloroethane (99.8%), 1,2-dibromomethane (99%), CT (99+%), isopropylbenzene (99%),para-xylene (99%), ethylbenzene (99.8%), propy- lbenzene (98%), 1,2,4-TMB (98%) were purchased from Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany) and chloroform (99.5%), ben- zene (99.5%), 1,3,5-TMB (99%), 1,2,3-TMB (90\u201395%) from Fluka (Buchs, Switzerland). Fluorobenzene (99%) from Aldrich (Steinheim, Germany) was tested as internal standard. Sodium chloride (>99.5%) purchased from Fluka (Buchs, Switzerland) was used to vary the ionic strength of the water samples. Sodium chloride was pulverized for a faster dissolution in a mortar and heated over night at 180\u25e6C in an incubator to remove organic residues.

2.2. GC/MS equipment and method

All samples were measured using a TraceGC 2000 (Ther- moFinnigan, Milan, Italy) gaschromatograph coupled with a TraceDSQ (ThermoFinnigan, Austin TX, USA) single quadrupole mass spectrometer. ITEX was performed with a CTC-CombiPAL autosampler supplied by Chromtech (Idstein,

Germany). Data acquisition, processing and evaluation were carried out using the standard software Xcalibur Data Sys- tem Version 1.3 (ThermoFinnigan, Austin TX, US). The analytes were separated on a RTX-VMS capillary column (60 m\u00d7 0.32 mm I.D., 1.8\ue000m \ufb01lm thickness, Restek, Belle- fonte, PA, USA). To obtain sharper peaks, especially for the early eluting chlorinated hydrocarbons, 1 m of a 0.53 I.D. deac- tivated capillary column was used as retention gap between the injector and the analytical column. The temperature pro- gram used to obtain separation of the target compounds was as follows: 14 min at 40\u25e6C, 4 \u25e6C/min to 100 \u25e6C, hold for 2 min, 10\u25e6C/min to 170 \u25e6C and hold for 5 min. The total runtime of the GC program was 36 min and the temperatures for the transfer line and the ion source were set to 250\u25e6C and 220\u25e6C, respec- tively.

The initial GC oven temperature was held at 40\u25e6C to trap the analytes before separation in order to prevent peak broad- ening. The GC was equipped with a programmable temperature vaporiser BEST PTV (ThermoQuest, Austin TX, USA) that was used in the splitless mode at an injection port base temperature of 170\u25e6C and a splitless time of 2 min. The carrier gas \ufb02ow was set to 1 mL/min during injection of the gas volume. After 2 min it was set to a constant carrier gas \ufb02ow of 1.5 mL/min for the rest of the chromatographic separation. A 1 mm I.D. deacti- vated silcosteel liner (Restek) was used. As carrier gas Helium 5.0 (AirLiquide, D\u00a8

usseldorf, Germany) was used. The MS was in the electron impact ionization mode (EI) at 70 eV. Full-scan mode (m/z = 49\u2013300) was used for all measurements, includ- ing the real samples. For quanti\ufb01cation, selected quanti\ufb01er ions were used (seeTable 1). A chromatogram of a 5\ue000g/L standard obtained under optimized conditions is shown inFig. 2. It turned out that \ufb02uorobenzene was not a useful internal standard for most

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