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Bloom's Taxonomy - Learning Domains

Bloom's Taxonomy - Learning Domains

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bloom's taxonomy - learning
domains

Benjamin Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning
Domains - Cognitive, Affective,
Psychomotor Domains - design and
evaluation toolkit for training and
learning

Bloom's Taxonomy, (in full: 'Bloom's Taxonomy of Learning Domains', or
strictly speaking: Bloom's 'Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives') was
initially (the first part) published in 1956 under the leadership of
American academic and educational expert Dr Benjamin S Bloom.
'Bloom's Taxonomy' was originally created in and for an academic
context, (the development commencing in 1948), when Benjamin
Bloom chaired a committee of educational psychologists, based in
American education, whose aim was to develop a system of categories
of learning behaviour to assist in the design and assessment of
educational learning. Bloom's Taxonomy has since been expanded over
many years by Bloom and other contributors (notably Anderson and
Krathwhol as recently as 2001, whose theories extend Bloom's work to
far more complex levels than are explained here, and which are more
relevant to the field of academic education than to corporate training
and development).

Where indicated Bloom's Taxonomy tables are adapted and reproduced with permission from Allyn & Bacon, Boston USA, being the publishers and copyright owners of 'Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives' (Bloom et al 1956).

Most corporate trainers and HR professionals, coaches and teachers,
will benefit significantly by simply understanding the basics of Bloom's
Taxonomy, as featured below. (If you want to know more, there is a
vast amount of related reading and references, listed at the end of this
summary explanation.)

Bloom's Taxonomy was primarily created for academic
education, however it is relevant to all types of learning.
Interestingly, at the outset, Bloom believed that education should focus
on 'mastery' of subjects and the promotion of higher forms of thinking,

rather than a utilitarian approach to simply transferring facts. Bloom
demonstrated decades ago that most teaching tended to be focused
on fact-transfer and information recall - the lowest level of training -
rather than true meaningful personal development, and this remains a
central challenge for educators and trainers in modern times. Much
corporate training is also limited to non-participative, unfeeling
knowledge-transfer, (all those stultifyingly boring powerpoint
presentations...), which is reason alone to consider the breadth and
depth approach exemplified in Bloom's model.

You might find it helpful now to see the Bloom Taxonomy overview. Did
you realise there were all these potential dimensions to training and
learning?

development of bloom's taxonomy

Benjamin S Bloom (1913-99) attained degrees at Pennsylvania State
University in 1935. He joined the Department of Education at the
University of Chicago in 1940 and attained a PhD in Education in 1942,
during which time he specialised in examining. Here he met his mentor
Ralph Tyler with whom he first began to develop his ideas for
developing a system (or 'taxonomy') of specifications to enable
educational training and learning objectives to be planned and
measured properly - improving the effectiveness of developing
'mastery' instead of simply transferring facts for mindless recall. Bloom
continued to develop the Learning Taxonomy model through the
1960's, and was appointed Charles H Swift Distinguished Service
Professor at Chicago in 1970. He served as adviser on education to
several overseas governments including of Israel and India.

Bloom's (and his colleagues') initial attention was focused on the
'Cognitive Domain', which was the first published part of Bloom's

Taxonomy, featured in the publication: 'Taxonomy Of Educational
Objectives: Handbook 1, The Cognitive Domain' (Bloom, Engelhart,
Furst, Hill, Krathwohl, 1956).

The 'Taxonomy Of Educational Objectives: Handbook II, The Affective
Domain' (Bloom, Masia, Krathwohl) as the title implies, deals with the
detail of the second domain, the 'Affective Domain', and was published
in 1964.

Various people suggested detail for the third 'Psychomotor Domain',
which explains why this domain detail varies in different
representations of the complete Bloom Taxonomy. The three most
popularly referenced versions of the Psychomotor Domain seem to be

those of RH Dave (1967/70), EJ Simpson (1966/72), and AJ Harrow
(1972).
As such 'Bloom's Taxonomy' describes the three-domain structure,
within which the detail may vary, especially for the third domain.

Bloom's Taxonomy has therefore since 1956 provided a basis for ideas
which have been used (and developed) around the world by
academics, educators, teachers and trainers, for the preparation of
learning evaluation materials, and also provided the platform for the
complete 'Bloom's Taxonomy' (including the detail for the third
'Psychomotor Domain') as we see it today. Collectively these concepts
which make up the whole Bloom Taxonomy continue to be useful and
very relevant to the planning and design of: school, college and
university education, adult and corporate training courses, teaching
and lesson plans, and learning materials; they also serve as a template
for the evaluation of: training, teaching, learning and development,
within every aspect of education and industry.

If you are involved in the design, delivery or evaluation of teaching,
training, courses, learning and lesson plans, you should find Bloom's
Taxonomy useful, as a template, framework or simple checklist to
ensure you are using the most appropriate type of training or learning
in order to develop the capabilities required or wanted.

Training or learning design and evaluation need not cover all aspects of the Taxonomy - just make sure there is coverage of the aspects that are appropriate.

As such, if in doubt about your training aims - check what's possible,
and perhaps required, by referring to Bloom's Taxonomy.
explanation of bloom's taxonomy

First, don't be put off by the language or the apparent complexity of
Bloom's Taxonomy - at this basic level it's a relatively simple and
logical model.

Taxonomy means 'a set of classification principles', or 'structure',

andDomain simply means 'category'. Bloom and his colleagues were
academics, looking at learning as a behavioural science, and writing
for other academics, which is why they never called it 'Bloom's
Learning Structure', which would perhaps have made more sense to

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