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Particles and Interactions

Quarks and leptons
and their interactions 1

1.1 Preamble

1.2 Quarks and leptons

1.3 Fermions and bosons: the spin-statistics
theorem; supersymmetry

1.4 Antiparticles

1.5 The fundamental interactions: boson
exchange

1.6 The boson couplings to fermions

1.7 The quark–gluon plasma

1.8 The interaction cross section

1.9 Examples of elementary particle
cross sections

1.10 Decays and resonances

1.11 Examples of resonances

1.12 New particles

1.13 Summary

Problems

2.1 Coordinate transformations in
special relativity

2.2 Invariant intervals and four-vectors

2.3 The equivalence principle: clocks in
gravitational ﬁelds

2.4 General relativity

2.5 The Schwarzschild line element,
Schwarzschild radius, and black holes

2.7 Shapiro time delay

2.8 Orbital precession

2.9 The Robertson–Walker line element

2.10 Modiﬁcations to Newtonian gravity?

2.11 Relativistic kinematics: four-momentum;
the Doppler effect

2.12 Fixed-target and colliding-beam
accelerators

3.1 Transformations and the Euler–Lagrange
equation

3.2 Rotations

3.3 The parity operation

3.4 Parity conservation and intrinsic parity

3.5 Parity violation in weak interactions

3.6 Helicity and helicity conservation

3.7 Charge conjugation invariance

3.8 Gauge transformations and gauge invariance

3.9 Superstrings

3.10 Gauge invariance in the electroweak theory

3.11 The Higgs mechanism of spontaneous
symmetry breaking

3.13 Vacuum structure in gauge theories

3.14 CPT theorem and CPand T symmetry

3.15 CPviolation in neutral kaon decay

3.16 CPviolation in the Standard Model: the
CKM matrix

3.17 Summary

4 Extensions of the
Standard Model

4.1 Neutrinoless double beta decay

4.2 Neutrino masses and ﬂavour oscillations

4.3 Grand uniﬁed theories: proton decay

4.4 Grand uniﬁcation and the neutrino
see-saw mechanism

4.5 Hierarchies and supersymmetry

4.6 Summary

5.1 The Hubble expansion

5.2 Olbers’paradox

5.3 The Friedmann equation

5.4 The sources of energy density

5.5 Observed energy densities

5.6 The age and size of the universe

5.9 Anisotropies in the microwave radiation

5.10 Particles and radiations in the early universe

5.11 Photon and neutrino densities

5.13 The eras of matter–radiation equality

5.14 Summary

6 Nucleosynthesis and
baryogenesis

6.1 Primordial nucleosynthesis

6.3 The baryon–photon ratio in the Big Bang

6.4 The Sakharov criteria

6.5 The baryon–antibaryon asymmetry: possible
scenarios

6.6 Summary

7 Dark matter and dark
energy components

7.1 Preamble

7.2 Dark matter in galaxies and clusters

7.3 Gravitational lensing

7.4 Evidence for dark matter from
gravitational lensing

7.6 The lensing probability: optical depth

7.7 Baryonic dark matter

7.8 Neutrinos

7.9 Axions

7.10 Axion-like particles

7.11 Weakly interacting massive particles

7.12 Expected WIMPcross-sections
and event rates

7.13 Experimental WIMPsearches

7.14 Dark energy: high redshift supernovae
and the Hubble plot at large z

7.15 Vacuum energy: the Casimir effect

7.16 Problems with the cosmological constant
and dark energy

7.17 Summary

8.1 Preamble

8.2 Galactic and intergalactic magnetic ﬁelds

8.3 Horizon and ﬂatness problems

8.4 Inﬂation

8.5 Chaotic inﬂation

8.6 Quantum ﬂuctuations and inﬂation

8.7 The spectrum of primordial ﬂuctuations

8.9 The growth of structure in an
expanding universe

8.10 Evolution of ﬂuctuations during
the radiation era

8.11 Cosmological limits on neutrino mass
from ﬂuctuation spectrum

8.12 Growth of ﬂuctuations in the
matter-dominated era

8.13 Temperature ﬂuctuations and
anisotropies in the CMB

8.14 The angular spectrum of anisotropies:
‘acoustic peaks’in the distribution

8.15 Experimental observation and
interpretation of CMB anisotropies

8.16 Polarization of the cosmic
microwave radiation

8.17 Summary

Particles and Radiation
in the Cosmos

Cosmic particles

9.1 Preamble

9.2 The composition and spectrum of cosmic rays

9.3 Geomagnetic and solar effects

9.4 Acceleration of cosmic rays

9.6 Passage of charged particles and radiation
through matter

9.7 Development of an electromagnetic cascade

9.8 Extensive air showers: nucleon- and
photon-induced showers

9.9 Detection of extensive air showers

9.10 Point sources of γ-rays

9.11 γ-Ray bursts

9.12 Ultra-high-energy cosmic ray showers: the
GZK cut-off

9.13 Point sources of ultra-high-energy
cosmic rays

9.14 Radio galaxies and quasars

9.15 Atmospheric neutrinos: neutrino oscillations

9.16 Solar neutrinos

9.17 Neutrino oscillations in matter

9.18 Point sources of high-energy neutrinos

9.19 Gravitational radiation

9.20 The binary pulsar

9.21 Detection of gravitational waves

10.3 Hydrogen burning: the p–p cycle
in the Sun

10.4 Helium burning and the production
of carbon and oxygen

10.5 Production of heavy elements

10.6 Electron degeneracy pressure and
stellar stability

10.7 White dwarf stars

10.8 Stellar collapse: type II supernovae

10.9 Neutrinos from SN 1987A

10.10 Neutron stars and pulsars

10.11 Black holes

10.12 Hawking radiation from black holes

10.13 Summary

Yukawa theory and the
boson propagator B

C.1 Growth in the matter-dominated era

References

Bibliography

Index

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