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.and other species of ash also representsigniﬁcant components of remnantnaturalforests,woodlotsandriparianzonesinthisarea.
As noted by previous authors,
EAB adults feed on ashfoliage particularly during the early summer to acquire energyfor maturation and breeding; however, adults cause relativelylittle damage to the tree per se. Typically, leaf feeding occurs fora period of approximately 2 weeks before mating and ovipositionbegin.EggsarelaidinbarkcrevicesofthemainstemandbranchesofthetreefromlateJunetoearlyAugustandhatchwithinroughly2 weeks. Larvae chew through the bark and feed on phloem untillateautumn,therebyweakeningthetree.Successiveyearsoflarvalfeedingactivityeffectivelyresultingirdlingofthetree,preventingsufﬁcient uptake and translocation of water and nutrients andultimately tree mortality.Given the abundance of ash trees in both urban and remnantnatural forests throughout northeastern North America, theirgeneric susceptibility to EAB attack and the invasive characterof EAB, there is an exceedingly high risk of economic, ecologicalandaestheticimpacts.
Aneffectiveintegratedpestmanagementapproachisthereforerequiredtomitigatethoserisks.Whileseveralparasitoid insect species and microbial agents are currently beinginvestigated as potential biocontrols,
none has been shownto provide control over ﬁeld populations to date. Meanwhile,EAB-infested areas increase dramatically with each passing year,and thus there is an immediate need for non-destructive controloptions with the ability to protect ash trees of high economic,aestheticorecologicalvalue.IntheUnitedStates,severalchemicalcontrol techniques employing various application methods andsystemic insecticides have been developed and are being used.Principal among these is the application of systemic insecticidessuch as imidacloprid or emamectin benzoate using either steminjection,soilinjectionorsoildrenchtechniques.
Althoughsomeof these options have been shown to result in high levels of adultmortality and signiﬁcant reductions in larval density, there aresubstantialenvironmentalconcernsassociatedwithsomeofthesecompoundsandapplicationtechniques.Inparticular,soilinjectionorsoildrenchtechniquesmayresultinunnecessaryexposureandrisk to non-target organisms in both the soil and potentiallyadjacent aquatic compartments.
In general, environmentalconcerns are exacerbated when the compounds involved arerelatively persistent, and such issues may signiﬁcantly inﬂuenceregistration or operational use in some jurisdictions.In Canada, where major EAB infestations often occur inassociation with urban environments, legislative bans, as well asgeneral public opposition to the use of conventional insecticides,signiﬁcantly constrain potential chemical control options. Giventhat the treatment objectives in urban scenarios revolve aroundprotection of relatively small numbers of high-value ash trees,single-tree application techniques are viable options. Among thevariety of potential techniques available, direct stem injectionsusing insecticides with a favorable environmental proﬁle areconsidered most likely to receive registration and be acceptedby the general public.Azadirachtins are a family of natural tetranortriterpenoidcompounds of botanical origin. They are particularly prevalentin seeds of the neem tree (
Juss.) and exhibit avariety of exploitable biological activities, including signiﬁcantantifeedant, antifertility and growth-regulating properties ininsects.
Neem seed extracts are particularly rich in two closelyrelatedcompounds,referredtoasazadirachtinsAandB(Aza-AandAza-B), that are considered to be the putative active ingredientsforobservedeffectsoninsects.Formulationspreparedfromtheseextracts have activity on a variety of wood-boring and foliarpests and varying levels of systemic activity.
Azadiracthinsalso exhibit relatively low toxicity to mammals, birds and non-target invertebrates.
A recent review on the environmentalfate and effects of azadirachtins in relation to potential uses inCanadian forestry
demonstrated that formulations containingazadirachtins have low to moderate persistence in water, soiland foliage and generally do not present a signiﬁcant risk to non-targetspecies,withtheexceptionofsomefreshwaterzooplanktonspecies. Given their general activity against wood-boring insectpests, systemic properties, low mammalian toxicity and positiveenvironmental proﬁle, azadirachtins are particularly well suitedfor development and use as a potential control of invasive wood-boring insect pests such as EAB.In a recently published paper by the present authors,
proof of concept was provided through the demonstration of dramaticinhibitionoflarvalgrowthanddevelopment,reductionsinfeedinggalleriesandultimatemortalityofEABlarvaeatrelativelylowdoselevels in small and large green ash following stem injections withthe formulated product TreeAzin
. In the present paper, thispotential is examined further by comparatively assessing foliarresiduedynamicsinbothgreenandwhiteashtreesgrowingundertypical urban parkland and street boulevard scenarios typical of anticipated primary use patterns.
The experimental site chosen for this study was located in thevicinity of Carriage Hill Park, London, Ontario. The approximatesite coordinates are (NAD 83 UTM 17T 4776814763209). Thegeneral site location, as well as the speciﬁc coordinates foreach experimental tree, was obtained using a handheld GarminGPSmap76CXx GPS unit (Garmin International Inc., Olathe, KS). Atthetimeofstudyinitiationinthesummerof2007,thegeneralareawas a known site of EAB infestation and being managed underquarantine restrictions. A few ash trees in the immediate areashowed symptoms of latter-stage EAB infestation, including bark cracking, characteristic D-shaped exit holes and crown dieback.WithintheparkareaandalongtheboulevardofnearbyMasonvilleCrescent, a total of 13 ash trees of similar total height, mainstem diameter and dimension of live crown canopy (Table 1)were selected and considered as replicate experimental units.Experimental trees were speciﬁcally selected for uniformity, tobe free of physical damage on the main stem and as havinghealthy canopies with no evidence of crown dieback or chloroticfoliage.Stemdiameteratbreastheight(dbh)wasmeasuredwithastandarddbhtape.Measurementsoftreeheight,aswellasheightand diameter of live crown, were made using a laser measuringdevice (LaserAce 300;MDL, Houston, TX). The study was designed to compare white and green ash treesgrowing in the park setting (
4 for each species), with an addi-tionalseparatecomparisonofresiduedynamicsingreenashtrees(
5) growing in park or street boulevard conditions. As therewere no white ash trees growing in nearby street boulevards, asimilar comparisonamongwhite ashin the two differentgrowingenvironments was not possible. Hence, the experiment may beconsidered as havingthree groupsorclasses (i.e. greenash – park setting, greenash – streetboulevardsetting, whiteash – parkset-ting).Meantreemeasurementsbyspeciesandgrowingconditionclass are given in Table 1. Comparative climatic data describinggrowingconditions (temperature and rainfall)in the year of study
2011 Society of Chemical Industry