DC/AC Power Inverter Page 2 of 39ECE 4522: Senior Design II April 30, 2004
Mobility and versatility have become a must for the fast-paced society today. People can no longer affordto be tied down to a fixed power source location when using their equipments. Overcoming the obstacleof fixed power has led to the invention of DC/AC power inverters. While the position of power inverter inthe market is relatively well established, there are several features that can be improved upon. Acomparison analysis of the different power inverter has been compiled. Aside from the differences in power wattage, cost per wattage, efficiency and harmonic contend, power inverters can be categorizedinto three groups: square wave, modified sine wave, and pure sine wave. A cost analysis of the differenttypes of inverter shows that sine wave power inverter, though has the best power quality performance, hasa big spike in cost per unit power. Another feature which can be improved is the efficiency of the inverter.The standard sine wave in the market has an average efficiency of 85-90%. Power dissipated due toefficiency flaws will be dissipated as heat and the 10-15% power lost in the will shorten operational lifespan of inverters. The quality of the output power could also be improved. It is imperative that the outputsignal be as clean as possible. Distortion in the output signal leads to a less efficient output and in the caseof a square wave , which has a lot of unwanted harmonics, it will damage some sensitive equipment.In designing any type of power supply, it is important to examine the intended market and place the product in a particular niche market. Our market niche will be to design a 300watts power inverter thatwill provide optimum pure sine wave performance with minimal cost. In meeting the designrequirements, there are several technical challenges that must be overcome. Our single, most difficultconstraint will be to produce power at a lower power per unit cost than exists in the market. Our efficiency will be greater than 90 percent. This insures that, with a maximum load, less than 10% of power will be dissipated as heat. The total harmonic distortion will be less than 5 percent. With a totalharmonic distortion this low and a pure sine wave output, we will be able to power even the mostsensitive loads.The fundamental step in approaching the challenges was to examine the methods used by existingcompanies for building power inverters. In examining their methods, many areas were open for potentialimprovement. These areas include the DC/DC step up converter, the DC/AC inverter, and the feedback control system. The DC/DC step up converter in our design will use a high frequency transformer,enabling us to reduce the size of the converter considerably. The use of a high frequency transformer willalso enable us to meet our efficiency constraint. A high switching frequency will improve the efficiencyof the inverter. In theory, a 100 percent efficient converter could be created. However, due to thelimitations of actual device material, our efficiency will be between 90 and 100 percent. The DC/ACinverter circuit will use a microprocessor to digitally pulse the transistors. This will allow us to produce a pure sine wave output. This feature will also allow us to enter other markets more easily. For instance, inEurope the fundamental frequency is 50 Hz. The frequency can be changed from 60 Hz to 50 Hz bysimply editing the source code. The feedback control system will be used to regulate the output voltageof the DC/DC converter. This is necessary since the current will vary will the load. The feedback controlsystem will be accomplished using by sampling the output with an integrated circuit.Most of the design constraints set for the inverter were met. However, the one important constraint whichthe power inverter didn’t meet was the 300W continuous power, which was probably because of thetransformer and the traces on the PCB. The inverter produces a clean sine wave with 7% of harmonicdistortion and has efficiency greater than 90%. Overall, it is a well designed project and a lot has beenaccomplished over the two semesters. This design if well marketed, will offer the power inverter market a premium product at a lower cost than before. Future work could be done to further improve efficiency,total harmonic distortion, and size. With these additional improvements, the standard could be raised for future DC/AC power supplies.