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Color Image Segmentation Based on Jnd Color Histogram

Color Image Segmentation Based on Jnd Color Histogram

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Published by: ursubhash on Nov 26, 2011
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Kishor Bhoyar kkbhoyar@ycce.eduAssistant Professor, Department of Information Technology Yeshwantrao ChavanCollege of Engineering Nagpur 441110 IndiaOmprakash Kakdeogkakde@yahoo.comProfessor, Department of Computer Science Engineering Vishweswarayya NationalInstitute of Technology Nagpur 440022 India
AbstractThis paper proposes a new color image segmentation algorithm based on theJND (Just Noticeable Difference) histogram. Histogram of the given color imageis computed usingJND color model. This samples each of the three axes of colorspace so that just enoughnumber of visually different color bins (each bincontaining visually similar colors) areobtained without compromising the visualimage content. The number of histogram bins arefurther reduced usingagglomeration successively. This merges similar histogram binstogether basedon a specific threshold in terms of JND. This agglomerated histogram yieldsthefinal segmentation based on similar colors. The performance of the proposedalgorithm isevaluated on Berkeley Segmentation Database. Two significantcriteria namely PSNR andPRI (Probabilistic Rand Index) are used to evaluatethe performance. Results show that the proposed algorithm gives better resultsthan conventional color histogram (CCH) basedmethod and with drasticallyreduced time complexity.Keywords: Color Image Segmentation, Just noticeable difference, JND Histogram. 
1. INTRODUCTION Color features of images are represented by color histograms. These are easy to compute,andare invariant to rotation and translation of image content. The potential of using color imagehistograms for color image indexing is discussed by [1]. However color histogramshave severalinherent limitations for the task of image indexing and retrieval. Firstly, inconventional colorhistogram (CCH) two colors will be considered totally different if theyfall into two different binseven though they might be very similar to each other for human perception. That is, CCHconsiders neither the color similarity across different bins nor the color dissimilarity in the samebin. Therefore it is sensitive to noisyinterferences such as illumination changes and quantizationerrors. Secondly, CCH’s highdimensionality (i.e. the number of histogram bins) requires largecomputations on
histogram comparison. Finally, color histograms do not include any spatialinformationand are therefore not suitable to support image indexing and retrieval, based onlocalimage contents. To address such issues various novel approaches were suggested,like spatialcolor histogram [2], merged color histogram [3], and fuzzy color histogramSegmentation involves partitioning an image into a set of homogeneous andmeaningfulregions, such that the pixels in each partitioned region possess an identical setof properties.Image segmentation is one of the most challenging tasks in image processing and is a veryimportant pre-processing step in the problems in the area of image analysis, computer vision, andpattern recognition [5,6]. In many applications, thequality of final object classification and sceneinterpretation depends largely on thequality of the segmented output [7]. In segmentation, animage is partitioned into differentnon-overlapping homogeneous regions, where the homogeneityof a region may becomposed based on different criteria such as gray level, color or texture. The research inthe area of image segmentation has led to many different techniques,which can be broadly classified into histogram based, edge based, region based, clustering,andcombination of these techniques [8,9] . Large number of segmentation algorithms are present inthe literature, but there is no single algorithm that can be considered good for all images [7].Algorithms developed for a class of images may not always produce goodresults for otherclasses of images. In this paper we present a segmentation scheme basedon JND (Just NoticeableDifference) histogram. Color corresponding to each bin in suchhistogram is visually dissimilarfrom that of any other bin; whereas each bin containsvisually similar colors. The color similaritymechanism is based on the threshold of similarity which is based on Euclidean distance betweentwo colors being compared for similarity. The range of this threshold for fine to broad color visionis also suggested inthe paper, based on sampling of RGB color space suggested by McCamy[10]. The rest of the paper is organized as follows. Section 2 gives the brief overview of JND modelandcomputation of color similarity threshold in RGB space, and computation of JNDhistogram.Section 3 presents the algorithm for agglomeration of JND histogram and thesubsequentsegmentation based on JND histogram. Section 4 presents the results of the proposed algorithmon BSD, and its comparison based on two measures of segmentationquality namely PSNR andPRI. Section 5 gives the concluding remarks and future work.2. JND COLOR MODEL AND JND HISTOGRAM2.1 Overview of JND Color modelThe JND color model in RGB space based on limitations of human vision perception as proposedin [11] is briefed here for ready reference. The human retina contains two typesof light sensorsnamely; rods and cones, responsible for monochrome i.e. gray vision andcolor visionrespectively. The three types of cones viz, Red, Green and Blue respond tospecific ranges ofwavelengths corresponding to the three basic colors Red, Green andBlue. The concentration ofthese color receptors is maximum at the center of the retinaand it goes on reducing along radius.According to the three color theory of ThomasYoung, all other colors are perceived as linearcombinations of these basic colors.According to [12] a normal human eye can perceive at themost 17,000 colors atmaximum intensity without saturating the human eye. In other words, if thehuge color 
space is sampled in only 17,000 colors, a performance matching close to humanvision atnormal illumination may be obtained. A human eye can discriminate between twocolorsif they are at least one ‘just noticeable difference (JND)’ away from each other.The term ‘JND’has been qualitatively used as a color difference unit [10]. If we decideequal quantization levels for each of the R, G and B axes, then we requireapproximately26 quantization levels each to accommodate 17000 colors. But from thephysiologicalknowledge, the red cones in the human retina are least sensitive, blue conesaremoderately sensitive and the green cones are most sensitive. Keeping this physiological fact inmind, the red axis has been quantized in 24 levels and the blue andgreen axes are quantized in26 and 28 levels [11]. The 24x26x28 quantization in the RGBspace results in slight over- sampling (17,472 different colors) but it ensures that each of the 17,000 colors isaccommodatedin the sampled space. Heuristically it may be verified that any other combination of quantizationon the R,G and B axes results in either large under samplingor over-sampling as required toaccommodate 17000 colors in the space. Although theactual value of the just noticeabledifference in terms of color co-ordinates may not beconstant over the complete RGB space dueto non-linearity of human vision and the non-uniformity of the RGB space, the 24x26x28quantization provides strong basis for deciding color similarity and subsequent colorsegmentation as demonstrated in thiswork. Using this sampling notion and the concept of ‘just noticeable difference’ thecomplete RGBspace is mapped on to a new color space JJgJ bwhere J, Jgand J bare three orthogonal axeswhich represent the Just Noticeable Differences on therespective R,G and B axes. The values ofJ on each of the color axes vary in the range(0,24) ,(0,26) or (0,28) respectively for red, blue andgreen colors. This new space is a perceptually uniform space and offers the advantages of theuniform spaces in imageanalysis.2.2 Approximating the value of 1 JNDh For a perfectly uniform color space the Euclidean distances between two colors iscorrelated withthe perceptual color difference. In such spaces (e.g. CIELAB to aconsiderable extent) the locusof colors which are not perceptually different from a givencolor, forms a sphere with a radiusequal to JND. As RGB space is not a perceptuallyuniform space, the colors that are indiscernibleform the target color, form a perceptually

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